The National Bee Unit (NBU) has not assessed the risks associated with queen bee inbreeding in commercial bee-keeping operations. However, the NBU and Defra officials have regular contact with commercial beekeepers. These bee farmers have not raised queen inbreeding as an area of concern. Most beekeeping operations do allow wild mating so queens cross-breeding with drones from other local colonies does occur naturally. In commercial operations, queens displaying symptoms of inbreeding would be replaced for economic reasons.