Public Health England (PHE) track a number of indicators concerning health, wellbeing and behavioural and cognitive outcomes associated with life chances. This is via the Public Health Outcomes Framework and other profiles, in particular the child health profiles and the early years profiles.
These indicators include background factors, such as children in low income families, risk factors, (for example low birthweight at term), and protective factors including breastfeeding initiation. PHE also collect data on early years outcomes via the Ages and Stages questionnaire as well as later childhood outcomes.
There are also indicators on obesity, namely excess weight in four-five and 10-11 year olds. In terms of childhood health and life chances, obese children and adolescents are at an increased risk of developing various health problems (both physical and emotional /psychological), and are also more likely to become obese adults.
In addition, the Department funds longitudinal studies such as the millennium cohort study to track children through childhood and is supporting the roll-out of Routine Enquiry into Adverse Childhood Experiences. This will encourage people to disclose childhood adversity, which can lead to them getting the help they need sooner.