On the subject of national parliaments, different Member States have different constitutional structures. Although the UK does not have a single, written constitution, the constitutional relationship between the UK and EU is perfectly clear and it is that the UK Parliament is sovereign in the UK. The EU Act of 2011 also makes clear that directly effective and directly applicable EU law only takes effect in the UK legal order by virtue of the will of Parliament – through the European Communities Act 1972 and through other Acts of Parliament.
On the question of voting arrangements in the Council of Ministers, I refer the noble Lord to the answer given by the Minister of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, my right hon. Friend Mr Lidington, to Sir Richard Shepherd, on