In its final report from January 2005, the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur concluded that:
“While the Commission did not find a systematic or a widespread pattern to violations committed by rebels, it nevertheless found credible evidence that members of the Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) are responsible for serious violations of international human rights and humanitarian law which may amount to war crimes. In particular, these violations include cases of murder of civilians and pillage.”
These allegations were subsequently investigated by the International Criminal Court, and cases were brought by the prosecutor against a number of individuals, including former commanders in the JEM. The Court decided not to proceed with one of these cases, but another still remains before the Court.
The JEM continues to carry out military activities in Darfur and elsewhere in Sudan, and holds some defectors from the movement as prisoners. While there are reports of activities by the movement that could be contrary to international law, for example attacks on civilians or on peacekeepers, it is difficult to ensure independent investigation of such allegations and so to attribute responsibility for attacks to particular armed groups.