Information on the net balance of research and development investments is not available.
The OECD has for many years provided the most reliable and consistent international analyses of R&D expenditures, under the guidance of the Frascati Manual which sets out how to describe and measure R&D activities. In line with the Frascati Manual, the UK national statistics on R&D are at gross level.
The following table shows the latest available R&D statistics at regional level. Private non-for-profit expenditure on R&D (PNPERD) is not available at regional level. In 2004, PNPERD accounted for 3 per cent. of the UK gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD).
|Estimated regional breakdown of expenditure on Intramural R&D in the business, government and higher education sectors, 2003|
|R&D performed within business (BERD)||R&D performed within government establishments (GOVERD)( 1)||R&D performed within higher education institutions (HERD)|
|(1) Figures include estimates for those areas of central Government not available from the Government survey and local authorities. Note : 1. Information on GERD at the UK level for 2005 was released by the Office of National Statistics (ONS) on 23 March. GERD amounted to £21,764 million in 2005. 2. For international comparisons, because of movements in exchange rates, it is more meaningful to express R&D as a percentage of GDP. The latest figures for 2005 were 1.8 per cent. both for the EU25 (OECD data) and 1.8 per cent. for the UK (ONS). Source: ONS.|