Clause 1 - Road safety grants

Road Safety Bill [Lords] – in a Public Bill Committee at 10:45 am on 21st March 2006.

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Photo of Owen Paterson Owen Paterson Shadow Minister (Environment, Food and Rural Affairs) 10:45 am, 21st March 2006

I beg to move amendment No. 15, in page 1, line 13, at end add—

‘()Before making a grant under this section to any body which is not a local authority, the relevant national transport authority shall consult the relevant local transport authority or authorities.’.

Photo of Nicholas Winterton Nicholas Winterton Conservative, Macclesfield

With this it will be convenient to discuss the following amendments:

No. 16, in page 1, line 13, at end add—

‘()No road safety grant shall be paid to any organisation which comprises or is part of a safety camera partnership.’.

No. 17, in page 1, line 13, at end add—

‘()A national transport authority shall publish an annual report including information on—

()the number of grants given,

()the purposes for which those grants were given,

()the effectiveness of the grants in promoting road safety, and

()such other aspects as the national transport authority may consider appropriate.’.

Photo of Owen Paterson Owen Paterson Shadow Minister (Environment, Food and Rural Affairs)

We get off to fairly easy bowling in this clause. We do not disagree hugely with it and we have tabled three amendments of a probing   nature.The clause says that payments will be made by a national transport authority to local authorities for the purposes of promoting road safety. The Opposition would like to know what will happen to the funds that are allocated by central Government to local government agencies for road safety. We have received representations from a number of groups that are alarmed because local authorities, knowing that fresh funds will come in through the conduit provided by the clause, might be given the chance to cut their road safety budgets. It would be helpful if the Minister said what sums are going to local authorities, how they are distributed at the moment and under what conditions, and how he envisages the new funds being disbursed. How will the process be decided and audited?

Through amendment No. 15 we are seeking to examine whether it is possible for the funds to be spent beyond the bounds of local authorities. Could they be disbursed to smaller agencies—such as parish councils and town councils—with the approval of the local authority, which is probably in charge of speed limits at county level, and has an overall county view on them? We should like to know how the funds will be distributed and what consultation there will be between the local transport authority and the relevant national authorities.

On amendment No. 16, we are aware that some authorities will be part of safety camera partnerships, because there are local authorities that comprise constituent parts of such partnerships. The amendment is quite deliberate, however, because we should really like to see localism on the issue. We think that there is merit in schools having ability to access funds for local speed limits. Some interesting work has been done in Canada, where there are quite tight speed limits around schools at certain times of day, and that is widely known and displayed in notices that are rather like the parking restriction notices that we see in our cities. The notices indicate at what time of day one is not allowed to go above a certain speed near a school.

I believe that there is merit in localism for the issue of road safety. When I drive from my home to Oswestry I go past a primary school where there is a very narrow road and a narrow pavement. The statutory limit of 30 mph is wrong in that location, because when cars are parked up—with little parking space—it is not sensible to go at that speed. It is well worth investigating the idea that such schools should discuss with the local authority—as proposed in amendment No. 15—the merits of a localised limit.

There are numerous parish councils in my constituency and I am sure that my hon. Friends from suburban and urban seats could speak for town councils. The same idea could apply to those councils. There are areas where local people have strong feelings about the issue, and relatively small sums can make a big difference.

The obvious vehicle for such a measure is an automatic sign. In fact, on my way to a meeting in Portcullis House this morning, I was clocked by one in the passageway between Speaker’s Court and New   Palace Yard. It got me doing 5 mph—walking. The big red sign displaying the number five brought me up. We all have these signs in our constituencies. This is anecdotal, but numerous people have told me that flashing signs that tell the exact speed do have an impact on people’s driving behaviour. I have heard it too often for it not to be true. Surely it would be meritorious to have a serious look at allowing parish councils or town councils to apply for funding for such modest schemes. Perhaps the Minister will tell us how much self-illuminating signs cost and his opinion of them.

Amendment No. 16 clearly suggests that we would like to go beyond local authorities. We are nervous that local authorities will be able to grab the money and allocate funds that were previously dedicated to transport issues and road safety to another pot. I would like the Minister’s reassurance on that matter.

I like the idea of localism. When the sentiments behind amendments Nos. 15 and. 16 were debated last summer—my right hon. Friend the member for East Yorkshire will confirm this—then Minister, Mr Jamieson, claimed that they were incompatible. That is not the case; this is deliberate.

I would really like some localism and local decision making. Such an approach would also have an impact on local opinion. If people felt that there was funding available for tiny schemes, such as putting some signs around a school or erecting a self-illuminating sign, it would be beneficial.

I would also like to move amendment No. 17, partly picked up in Brake’s submission on the proposed amendments. That organisation called for an annual report—

Photo of Nicholas Winterton Nicholas Winterton Conservative, Macclesfield

May I correct the hon. Gentleman? He cannot yet move amendment No. 17; he may merely discuss it.

Photo of Owen Paterson Owen Paterson Shadow Minister (Environment, Food and Rural Affairs)

Thank you, Sir Nicholas. I will discuss amendment No. 17 in the light of Brake’s submission, which called for an annual report on the speed limits on roads. We thought that the legislation should go further than that, and that it is appropriate to have an annual report on where the money is going, how many grants have been given out, the purposes of those grants, and, above all, their effectiveness in promoting road safety. It is important that the term “road safety” is included, because clause 1 would be improved dramatically if it were stated clearly that we want to know how the grants are spent and what impact they have on road safety.

For instance, returning to my two examples, if it were decided to put speed limits around schools, it would be very interesting to receive an annual country-wide analysis on what that had done, whether it was sensible and whether the following year it might be better to pursue entirely different expenditure. Again, modest schemes, such as painting the road, having different signs and reducing the number of signs and not muddling motorists can have impact. It would be interesting and worth while to know how the money was disbursed, to whom it was disbursed, and what impact it had had.

As a catch-all, amendment No. 17 concludes with a blanket statement, recommending that a national transport authority could discuss any other aspects that it thought appropriate.

Clause 1 is benign. We do not intend to oppose it; we just want to tease out what it is really about. It would be improved if the Minister looked favourably on our amendments, because there is real value in localism and in seeing the money spent locally.

Photo of Alistair Carmichael Alistair Carmichael Shadow Secretary of State for Transport

I do not need to detain the Committee at any great length. The hon. Member for North Shropshire said that the clause is benign, which is a view that I share. Its objectives are well intentioned and would be of significant benefit. There is merit in some of the thoughts that the hon. Gentleman floats in his amendments, especially the requirement for consultation in amendment No. 15. Although I am no great lover of annual reports—barely a day seems to pass when half a dozen do not end up in my bin—it would be appropriate for there to be a proper mechanism whereby we could keep track of the impact of clause 1. I would have preferred the report to be to Parliament, because too often we labour away in Committee, the Bill is enacted and that is the last we hear of the proposals, often because the Government do not implement them. I hope that this measure will be implemented, because it can make a significant difference.

The hon. Member for North Shropshire was right to say that localism is important. Communities should feel that they have a meaningful say on road safety measures—that they are not just visited on them from on high. It is much more likely that there will be proper obedience to road safety measures if communities have some sense of ownership of them.

I did not follow the hon. Gentleman’s thinking when he said that the exclusion of any organisation that comprises, or is part of, a safety camera partnership would necessarily lead to a greater degree of localism, but that may emerge from the debate.

Photo of Owen Paterson Owen Paterson Shadow Minister (Environment, Food and Rural Affairs) 11:00 am, 21st March 2006

My point is that we want to get over the normal local authority organisations and go right down to local level. The county might be part of the safety camera partnership but we want to go beyond that to the school or the parish council. The amendment was deliberately intended to probe the Minister on how the money would get through.

Photo of Alistair Carmichael Alistair Carmichael Shadow Secretary of State for Transport

I accept that the amendment is probing and that the motivation behind it is good and sound, but I have reservations about whether it provides the most effective means to achieve what is intended.

Photo of Greg Knight Greg Knight Chair, Procedure Committee

One thing that unites hon. Members on both sides of the Committee is that we all want road safety to be improved, although we may disagree on   how to achieve it. One way of doing so is to ensure that every driver who transgresses receives penalty points on his licence and eventually is removed from the road.

I believe that a one-eyed approach is less effective than a broader approach that encompasses educating all road users, not just those who drive a motor vehicle but cyclists and pedestrians, and increasing warnings. My hon. Friend the Member for North Shropshire mentioned the flashing electronic signs, which are very effective because they warn all road users who may not be familiar with a stretch of road that they need to take care. I hope when the Minister replies he will confirm that he will take a broad view of road safety and consider a mixture of penalties, education and warnings where appropriate. Some Opposition Members feel that the so-called road safety camera partnerships in some parts of the country are obsessed with raking in fine money by catching motorists speeding and less focused on the wider promotion of road safety.

The clause is very widely drafted, which may be a reason to applaud the Minister. Subsection (1) states:

“A national transport authority may make payments to any local authority or any other authority or body for meeting the whole or part of the capital or running costs of any measures”.

If “any measures” are indeed to be considered—if the issue is to be considered in the broad sense—there is a case for encouraging local innovation. If a parish council has a unique idea about how road safety can best be promoted in the village or villages it represents, why not encourage that and give it a grant? The measure does not have to be yet another red box alongside the road; it may be a scheme to go into schools to teach children about the dangers of traffic, or a method of encouraging members of the community to play their part, as they do in neighbourhood watch schemes which have been such a success in tackling burglary. There may be many such ideas that the Government have not yet picked up on but that should be encouraged. I therefore hope that the Minister will confirm that he envisages the clause operating as broadly as possible.

I agree with the comments on amendment No. 17. In general we do not want to encourage more bureaucracy, but the Minister will satisfy us if he can say how he envisages the effectiveness of the clause being monitored. Does he expect his Department to do that and feed back to him? I would be satisfied if there is to be active monitoring by officials at the Department for Transport: I do not necessarily want the over-regulation of an annual report. If that is how the Minister envisages the clause working, perhaps he will undertake periodically to make a written statement to the House stating what grants have been given, what new ideas have been encouraged and so on. I think that the Minister will be able to allay many of our concerns when he responds to the debate.

Photo of Tom Harris Tom Harris PPS (Rt Hon Patricia Hewitt, Secretary of State), Department of Health

On a point of order, Sir Nicholas. Will you give members of the Committee permission to remove their jackets?

Photo of Nicholas Winterton Nicholas Winterton Conservative, Macclesfield

I am extremely traditional but I am prepared to move with the times. If members of the Committee wish to remove their jackets in order to be more comfortable, I am happy that they should do so. I hope that that is a satisfactory response to a matter of comfort, rather than a point of order.

Photo of Lee Scott Lee Scott Conservative, Ilford North

I rise to speak to amendment No. 15. As chairman of the governors of a local school, I shall talk about some of the problems experienced in suburban areas where traffic congestion and parking causes immense problems for children on their way to school. Anything that can help in that respect—for example, signs that flash up the speed that cars are doing—is to be welcomed. Many of those signs have been put up in my constituency, but local authorities have limited resources and anything that can bring extra money for such purposes is to be encouraged. I therefore support my hon. Friend’s proposal.

In the average suburban area, single-line traffic and cars parked either side of the road cause enormous problems. The proposal will help to solve them and save lives in the long term.

Photo of Stephen Ladyman Stephen Ladyman Minister of State, Department for Transport

I ask you to indulge me for a moment, Sir Nicholas, and allow me to talk about what clause 1 is intended to achieve, which would usually be more appropriate to a stand part debate. However, I need to do that in order to explain the Government’s view of the amendments.

The Road Traffic Act 1988 made it possible for the Government, in promoting road safety, to make grants to bodies other than local authorities. I have no doubt that the Government at the time intended that Act to allow them to give money to bodies other than local authorities as well as giving money to the local authorities themselves. However, they succeeded only in making it impossible for Government to give money to local authorities for one-off schemes, which is perverse. The clause will allow us to give money either to local authorities or to other appropriate bodies to carry out demonstration projects—pieces of work that might teach us something about a road safety measure that we can then disseminate to all local authorities or more widely throughout the country.

We have various mechanisms for providing money to local authorities. The hon. Member for North Shropshire, who opened the debate, asked what happened to the existing funds that go to local authorities. We can make road safety funds available to local authorities through the local transport plan arrangements, but ring-fencing that money is difficult. Local authorities have a great degree of local autonomy at the moment and they can spend that money on virtually anything, as long as they are accountable to the local electorate. Clearly, if we want a particular local authority to do a piece of work for us as a demonstration or proof of concept, the last thing that we want is to hand over that money only to have the local authority decide that it is not going to do the project and that it will use the money for something else.

We want to be able to give specific local authorities one-off sums of money to do the sort of experiments that Opposition Members have highlighted. We might want a local authority to experiment with flashing warning signs or with 20-mph zones around schools, for example, and to feed back the information from that experiment so that we can disseminate the experience more widely.

Photo of Stephen Hammond Stephen Hammond Shadow Minister (Transport)

The Minister says that local authorities have a fair degree of autonomy at the moment, but to a large extent that is not true in London. The amendment would allow London boroughs to try a number of road safety schemes. In my borough, where I am still a councillor—for another eight weeks anyway—we have tried to get such schemes but were constrained by road safety funds and grants made available by Transport for London. The thrust of the amendment would be to allow local authorities and—perhaps more importantly and at an even more local level—ward councils to push for schools and parts of their area to get such funds, which are not available at the moment.

Photo of Stephen Ladyman Stephen Ladyman Minister of State, Department for Transport

The hon. Gentleman makes a good point. I do not want to get into a discussion about local government in London, as I suspect that you would pull me up sharply if I were to do so, Sir Nicholas, but clearly if we agree to the clause as it stands, we would be able to give one-off grants to specific local authorities in London. We would want to do that in collaboration and co-operation with Transport for London—we do not want to go behind its back—but we would have the power to make the sort of grants to which the hon. Gentleman is referring.

I hope that I have answered the point that the hon. Member for North Shropshire raised and the concerns expressed to him about local authorities spending the money that they had coming to them for road safety generally in the hope that we would then provide them with additional money. That is certainly not the way in which we envisage the grant being used.

The right hon. Member for East Yorkshire talked about the carrot and stick approach, which the hon. Member for North Shropshire also mentioned. I agree with them that it is no good thinking that we can impose road safety on the world. We have to bring people with us and win over their hearts and minds. We have to make sure that they have all the information and all the training needed to be able to use the roads safely, and we need a lot of innovation if we are going to do that.

I believe that we in this country have the safest roads in the world. One of the downsides, from our point of view, is that we have already hit all the easy targets. Now, we have to be innovative to get further advances in safety. We have to have fresh ideas. Where the stick will come in is often clear—we can see how it might help us to improve road safety in certain areas. It is often much more difficult to identify where the carrot can work—where providing that extra information or training programme can work—and that is where I envisage the grants being used. We might, for example,   test ideas about training young people about road safety issues and driving before they are even old enough to be drivers; however, I would not want to pump money into a national scheme until I knew that it would work. The obvious people to do that work for us and to find out whether it works are local authorities. We want to have the power to make such grants without going through the cumbersome special grant procedure.

That is exactly how we see the programme working. We do not see it as an alternative to local transport plans, and we certainly do not see it as a way of removing local autonomy. As to reporting on the issues, I understand what the hon. Member for Orkney and Shetland (Mr. Carmichael) means about having a bin full of annual reports. I sometimes share his concern on that, but information on such programmes tends to be provided through the Department’s annual reports and other such mechanisms. More importantly—this relates to the point made by the right hon. Member for East Yorkshire—we publish the results of such experiments on our website.

Clearly, the whole point of conducting such an experiment is to learn from it and to find out what works and what does not. It would be self-defeating to carry out such demonstration projects without publishing the results widely. On certain occasions, it would be appropriate for a Minister to make a statement about the outcome of a particular experiment, especially if that outcome were so positive that we believed it presaged or would even lead us directly to a change in Government policy. It would be entirely appropriate for such results to be flagged up in a written ministerial statement. I can give the right hon. Gentleman the assurance that he seeks: wherever the grants were used, the Department would monitor carefully how they were used, study the outcome of the experiment and demonstration and ensure that the information was properly disseminated. On that basis, I hope that he will accept that another report will probably not be particularly helpful.

I have no doubt that we will discuss camera partnerships in more detail later in our proceedings, but I should remind hon. Members that when we announced the changes in our policy on camera partnerships a few months ago, we said that we envisaged them becoming much wider. Frankly, I do not want to see partnerships consisting only of the police, who have responsibility for enforcement and collecting fines, and the teams that put up the cameras. Such an approach breeds exactly the mentality of those who believe that the only answer to a problem is a camera, because the people in such a partnership will essentially be earning their living out of cameras. Of course they will see cameras as the solution, and they will see more cameras as a way of providing more income.

I want partnerships to be much more widely representative of the local community. They have worked most successfully with that approach; some of   the partnerships in the east of England are a good example. I want to see local authority road safety teams in there. I want people from the national health service and the fire service to be involved, as well as the police. Perhaps people from the voluntary sector should be there too. Clearly, if we are going to have these wide-ranging partnerships, accepting an amendment preventing us from giving grants to anyone who was a member of such partnerships would be perverse. I hope that we can dispose of that amendment.

Photo of Greg Knight Greg Knight Chair, Procedure Committee 11:15 am, 21st March 2006

In the Minister’s vision of wider safety camera partnerships, does he envisage a role for the local road user?

Photo of Stephen Ladyman Stephen Ladyman Minister of State, Department for Transport

It is entirely possible that representatives of local road users could be in the partnerships. They could include people from the business community who have fleets that use local roads, such as those in the haulage industry, or representatives of ordinary road users such as pedestrians and cyclists. Such people may well have a place in the partnerships. At some point we might want to use one of the small grants to encourage a local authority to devise a scheme to identify the appropriate people for a partnership. We could then disseminate more widely that authority’s experience of including people.

I hope that I have dealt with all the points that have been raised. If I have not, I am prepared to try again.

Photo of Owen Paterson Owen Paterson Shadow Minister (Environment, Food and Rural Affairs)

The idea of experimental money for new projects is interesting. Will the Minister assure us that it cannot cut into existing transport budgets? The obvious question that has not yet been asked is how much money we are talking about.

Photo of Stephen Ladyman Stephen Ladyman Minister of State, Department for Transport

I can certainly assure the hon. Gentleman that we do not intend to take money from existing pots and put it into the new pot that will be at our disposal. We do not yet have a budget identified. We have used various budgets in the past to give money to a variety of organisations, including local authorities. Some of that has been disbursed through special grants and some through other mechanisms. He will be aware that the Government often have to be innovative in the way in which they make money available to projects, and we have granted money to local authorities and others through various ruses.

The sums involved tend to be relatively small. Bigger projects may sometimes receive £100,000 or £300,000. Schemes have ranged from those seeking to educate young people on road safety matters to those involving cyclists and other road users. We are not necessarily talking about massive projects, although there is scope for some big and innovative projects in the future. I am happy to write to the hon. Member for North Shropshire and other members of the Committee with examples of the schemes that we have helped in the past and would expect to fund through this mechanism. I hope that I have given sufficient reassurances to hon. Members to prevent them from pressing the amendment to a Division, and also that   they will support clause 1 stand part. I understand that the amendments were probing, and I hope that they have probed sufficiently.

Photo of Owen Paterson Owen Paterson Shadow Minister (Environment, Food and Rural Affairs)

That clarification has been helpful. I had not understood that the notion was that the funds would be experimental and for the purpose of carrying out practical trials. We have had an interesting debate, and I particularly liked the point made by my right hon. Friend the Member for East Yorkshire about education. I think that the Minister confirmed that funds could be disbursed for education as well as for the ideas that I put forward, such as flashing signs or speed limits around schools. I am encouraged by what he said and by his reassurance that a wide range of people will be on the partnerships. As we will discuss shortly, I think that the partnerships as they stand are flawed.

Photo of Stephen Ladyman Stephen Ladyman Minister of State, Department for Transport

I give the hon. Gentleman the assurance that he seeks. An example of a project that has been funded is one in Stoke-on-Trent that involved Blurton dads’ club, which is run alongside Sure Start. There was also a grant of a little less than £1 million to an older pedestrians’ initiative and one of about £1 million to a project in Liverpool called “Our walk to school.” Those are neighbourhood road safety initiative projects that we have funded. The hon. Gentleman might also want to look at a scheme called Kerbcraft, which teaches young children practical roadside skills. I hope that those are the sorts of educational schemes to which he referred.

Photo of Owen Paterson Owen Paterson Shadow Minister (Environment, Food and Rural Affairs)

That was a most helpful intervention. I am glad that the Minister did not find those projects in his notes, because they are exactly the sort of projects that we would be seeking over and above the stuff about science and limits, and they would be a worthwhile addition to measures to improve road safety, as long as we had the assurance that they would not cut into existing budgets. On that basis, I am happy to seek to withdraw the amendment.

Amendment, by leave, withdrawn.

Question proposed, That the clause stand part of the Bill.

Photo of Greg Knight Greg Knight Chair, Procedure Committee

I rise to ask the Minister a question and to place on record an expression of hope. First, the question relates to the scope of the grants. Could a road safety grant ever be given to remove a road completely? If someone has an idea that a road should be closed to traffic and turned over completely to pedestrians, could one of these grants ever be used for that purpose?

Secondly, I hope that if the Bill completes its passage and the system is up and running, the Department will not take a one-size-fits-all view of grants under the clause, because local needs and the environment of the area must also be taken into consideration.

Perhaps I may give the Minister an example in a related area. I am well aware that Departments generally try to encourage local authorities to consider ways of promoting public transport use and to discourage unnecessary car journeys. There is nothing   wrong with that. In cities such as Nottingham or maybe Derby, or in inner-city London, it makes sense to support the local authority if it wants to introduce a park-and-ride scheme. One way to encourage motorists to use park-and-ride schemes is to make them pay for inner-city parking, while the parking for the park-and-ride is free or very low-cost, so there is an incentive to use it.

My local authority, the East Riding of Yorkshire council, has recently been put under considerable pressure to introduce car-parking charges in Bridlington. In this case, which I give as an example, there has been no consideration of the needs of an English seaside town. We should encourage people to take holidays in the UK and to visit our seaside towns. I say to the Minister with the greatest respect that we will not encourage a young couple with children to go to the seaside, park their car and then, with little Johnny, their suitcases and their buckets and spades, use a park-and-ride scheme. My local authority has been put under pressure by the Department to abolish free parking in the town of Bridlington, and that is a mistake. It will affect the local economy, because a seaside town is different from an inner-city area in the middle of the country. I therefore hope that when we are considering grants under this provision, the Department will take into account local need, which it has not done in that example.

Photo of Stephen Ladyman Stephen Ladyman Minister of State, Department for Transport

I do not know of the initiative to which the right hon. Gentleman refers, and I would be worried if my Department were applying pressure so specifically. He may want to drop me a line about the project and I shall certainly look into it.

We do not intend the clause to be used to allow any form of road engineering. Were we to do that with a one-off grant to a particular local authority, I have no doubt that all the other local authorities would plough in and say, “We want some, too.” That would then begin to bring into disrepute the local transport plan programme and all the other mechanisms that are in place to distribute road engineering funding fairly.

Having said that that is not what we intend, one might ask whether the clause could be used to remove a road or a piece of engineering work in the future. I will ask my lawyers to reflect on that, but my interpretation of the clause is such that if it could be argued that the measure in question was entirely a road safety measure and that that was the only rationale for it, the provision could legally be used for that purpose. I will write to the right hon. Gentleman and tell him whether the lawyers confirm that that is the case, but we certainly do not intend the clause to be used in that way.

Perhaps I may take the Committee back to where we started. Back in 1988, the then Government had what I thought was a very good idea: they wanted to encourage demonstration projects to be carried out by the most appropriate voluntary organisations or other expert groups, so they drew up a measure to enable them to provide those groups with money. Clearly, the groups would not be the sort that would carry out   engineering works on our roads; they would engage with local communities, teaching kids how to get to school more safely, helping cyclists and motorcyclists, and carrying out similar projects. However, the 1988 Government did not intend to prevent themselves and future Governments from giving money for the same purposes to local authorities.

We want the clause to enable us to use local authorities to carry out demonstration projects in the same way as the 1988 Government intended to use voluntary organisations and others. That is how we want to use the clause, although on first reading it might appear that, if they wanted to, the Government could use the money in the way that the right hon. Gentleman suggests. However, as I said, I shall write to him on the matter.

Photo of Owen Paterson Owen Paterson Shadow Minister (Environment, Food and Rural Affairs) 11:30 am, 21st March 2006

The debate has demonstrated the purpose of a Standing Committee, because we now have a much better understanding of the clause. Opposition Members like the idea of experimentation. We like the idea that the clause can be used to support small projects and that, if a project has worked in one part of the country, it might be advertised to other areas. The clause also allows variety and flexibility. On that basis we are content to support it.

Question put and agreed to.

Clause 1 ordered to stand part of the Bill.