My Lords, UK oil production peaked in 1999 and is beginning to decline. Most producing oilfields, including Forties and Brent, are below their peak levels. Government and the industry are actively engaged in maximising economic recovery of hydrocarbons, including by application of enhanced oil recovery techniques. Such techniques—for example gas injection and depressurisation—are being used in the Brent and Brae areas. CO 2 injection, mentioned in the Question, is currently being studied.
My Lords, I thank my noble friend for his reply. Will the Government ensure that more public attention is given to the current work that he mentioned? Given the production peak offshore and the increasing dependency on overseas oil and gas supplies, will the Government support greater investment and endeavour in order that we maximise the United Kingdom energy yield?
My Lords, I agree with everything that the noble Lord said. There has been work on all the technologies for many years. The zero emissions technology group is working continually on environmental risks, economics, legal issues and international co-operation. For many years, because of lower energy prices, many attractive techniques have simply not been economical.
My Lords, is the noble Lord aware that the injection of CO 2 into suitable depleted reservoirs of oil can enhance production by some 10 to 15 per cent, as has been demonstrated in the United States and Canada? Does he not agree, therefore, that that could be linked with the development of plants for clean coal technology improvement with CO 2 extraction, thus contributing to the long-term benefits of the coal and oil industries?
My Lords, again, I agree with all of that. The Government are keen on CO 2 injection. For that reason, we announced in the last Budget a 70 per cent tax relief on enhanced oil recovery using CO 2 injection in petroleum revenue tax areas, and 40 per cent elsewhere. So, we are giving fiscal encouragement. As the noble Lord, Lord Ezra, will recognise, there are legal problems. There is the question whether the use of CO 2 injection or CO sequestration techniques conflict with international conventions on dumping waste at sea.
My Lords, does the noble Lord agree that oilfields normally peak in their first three or four years, but then continue in production for at least 20 years? Are the Government making arrangements to ensure that as much oil as possible is saved?
My Lords, I have before me a table of all the oilfields and their production since 1975. I shall spare the House my reading them out. Although it is technically possible to continue to extract oil for many years after the peak, it is not necessarily economically worth while.
My Lords, what assessment have the Government made of the impact of the 10 per cent supplementary charge, announced in the 2002 Budget, on the producers of oil and gas on the United Kingdom continental shelf? I wish to know, in particular, its impact on investment in exploration, development of the shelf and employment, particularly in Scotland.
My Lords, issues of past taxation policy are not relevant to the Question on enhanced oil recovery. The noble Baroness, Lady Miller, will be aware that we have been encouraging further exploration. For example, in the last Budget we increased first-year capital allowances from 25 per cent to 100 per cent. We have also abolished the royalty on the older fields.
My Lords, I wish that that were the case. I agree that there are many advantages of sequestration, which the noble Lord, Lord Ezra, pointed out, both in where the CO 2 comes from and where it goes to. Integrated gasification combined-cycle technology, which is the technique referred to, has considerable advantages. But, although it may not be a welcome fact, there are claims that, under the London Convention and the Ospar Convention, they constitute dumping waste at sea. Certain legal issues must be sorted out.
My Lords, I am sorry, I do not know. I shall write to the noble Lord.