My Lords, the Government have fully exploited the benefits of the peace dividend. They have shown their commitment to responsible arms export licensing. The United Kingdom has led the way in nuclear disarmament, both nationally and internationally. The UK supports the UN Secretary-General's "culture of prevention". The UN remains a key organisation in promoting peace. There is no conflict between our commitments to the UN and NATO, which underpin our defence and security.
My Lords, I thank my noble friend for that answer. However, perhaps I may suggest that a pamphlet I have provides the means whereby the aims and ambitions of the Government as regards peace may be put into effect. The 10 contributors include Kofi Annan, Cilla Elworthy and many other writers of distinction. I shall arrange for copies to be placed in the Library in the next day or two. Members will then be able to decide for themselves whether the pamphlet contains important suggestions for ways in which the Government may put into effect their aims.
My Lords, I am grateful to my noble friend for bringing the pamphlet to the attention of the House and for his kindness in suggesting that it will be made generally available. I reassure my noble friend that the Government's commitment to nuclear disarmament remains. As a result of the recent non-proliferation treaty review conference, those aims are being progressed with greater energy.
My Lords, can the Minister update the House on the study of more appropriate sanctions? She will recall that over recent months from time to time on these Benches we have raised the question of sanctions being targeted more clearly at political elites. We have asked whether that would be more appropriate than the generalised sanctions against Iraq or, until recently, the former Republic of Yugoslavia.
My Lords, the noble Baroness will be aware that we have tried to target sanctions to hit those who will be most affected. I refer to the people responsible, as opposed to the ordinary people. It is our view that that is the better way forward. From the way in which we are progressing on those issues, I hope that the noble Baroness will see that "smart sanctions" are the ones which find greater favour within the international community.