The Opposition support the legislation and it will pass unopposed this evening. It is rightly up to the Government to promote their support for small businesses. As Government Members have said, HMRC should take a proactive role in ensuring that businesses are aware of schemes that are available to support them.
Clauses 11 to 20 relate to the certification scheme for oil and gas workers on the continental shelf, limited liability partnerships and several miscellaneous measures, but I want to focus briefly on clauses 9 and 10, which seek to extend the application of the general anti-abuse rule to national insurance contributions. The GAAR, which came into force on Royal Assent of the Finance Act 2013, incorporates income tax, corporation tax, capital gains tax, inheritance tax, petroleum revenue tax, stamp duty, land tax and the new annual tax on enveloped dwellings.
A number of Opposition Members raised the concern that the GAAR is intended to prevent only “highly contrived tax avoidance” that has “abnormal features”. The man who designed the GAAR, Graham Aaronson QC, believes that it is
“clearly intended to apply only to egregious, or very aggressive, tax avoidance schemes”.
What deterrent effect is such a narrowly drafted GAAR expected to have? As the Government’s flagship policy for tackling tax avoidance, what dent will the GAAR make on the tax gap, which HMRC says is £32.2 billion a year?
During the debate on the 2013 Act, I pointed out that the GAAR is expected to yield £60 million in 2014-15, rising to £85 million by 2017-18. I am more than willing to acknowledge that those are sizeable sums, but the point made in the House back in April was that it represented a drop in the ocean compared with the then tax gap of £32.2 billion.
What has changed since? HMRC’s latest tax gap estimate, of the difference between what is collected and what would be collected if everyone complied with the letter and spirit of the law, concluded that it has increased to £35 billion, a staggering 8.7% increase in the space of 12 months. I accept that many dispute the figure and say it is too low—that it does not include much of what could be incorporated in the figure for tax avoided.
The latest HMRC estimate, which covers 2011-12, indicates that some £15.3 billion of the gap can be accounted for by unpaid income tax, capital gains tax and NICs combined. HMRC suggests that approximately £4 billion of the gap arises out of avoidance “behaviour”. Will the Minister therefore clarify exactly how much of the £35 billion tax gap is thought to be made up of NICs that are unpaid through avoidance? Given that the Bill deals with only the most aggressive or egregious avoidance activity, how much will extending the GAAR to NICs yield for the Exchequer in additional revenue?
The Opposition have raised many other concerns about the GAAR—my hon. Friend the Member for Birmingham, Ladywood mentioned the Swiss deal and the number of holes in that arrangement, which leave a hole in the Government’s estimates. However, there is also the highly subjective double reasonableness test, which can be used to determine whether a means of avoiding a tax can
“reasonably be regarded as a reasonable course of action”.
That subjectivity is helpfully explained in the GAAR guidance, which states:
“The words ‘contrived’ and ‘abnormal’ are not defined, and therefore will be applied in their normal sense”.
We have long argued that that is a fig leaf, or could be used as a fig leaf, for tacitly legitimising tax avoidance that does not fall within those definitions. We tabled amendments to ensure that the GAAR would be reviewed, and to assess its effectiveness.
Most critically, we have questioned the independence of the advisory panel established by the Treasury to oversee the GAAR. At the time, I said:
“What a tax expert considers to be reasonable might be regarded differently in the eyes of a member of the public. Indeed, many tax experts will differ on what they believe to be reasonable tax planning, as opposed to something egregious that would fall under the GAAR.”—[Hansard, 17 April 2013; Vol. 561, c. 425-426.]
What has changed since April? A matter of weeks after being hand-picked to deliberate on the Government’s flagship anti-avoidance policy, one panel member was caught on camera at a tax planning conference offering tips to people on how to keep their money
“out of the Chancellor’s grubby mitts”.
HMRC’s website simply tells us:
“David Heaton resigned from the Advisory Panel on
It would be helpful to hear from the Minister exactly what those arrangements are, when she expects the appointment to be made and, most importantly, how she and her ministerial colleagues will ensure that this never happens again. If the GAAR is to retain or, indeed, regain any shred of credibility, what are the Government going to do about that?
As we have said, we back the Bill, especially the main provision—the employment allowance. We repeatedly called for changes to the previous national insurance holiday scheme and we consistently warned that it would be a flop. Many of the changes we called for will be introduced in the employment allowance, but it is disappointing that for hundreds of thousands of small businesses it has taken almost four years to deliver the policy that they need. They deserve better, but the Bill is a small step in the right direction today.