Energy Bill

Part of Orders of the Day – in the House of Commons at 3:45 pm on 22nd January 2008.

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Photo of John Hutton John Hutton Secretary of State, Department for Business, Enterprise & Regulatory Reform, Secretary of State for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform 3:45 pm, 22nd January 2008

I beg to move, That the Bill be now read a Second time.

I believe that the Energy Bill, with the measures on planning and climate change, has an important role to play in implementing our strategy for tackling climate change and ensuring secure energy supplies. We are all aware of the scale of the energy challenges that the UK and other countries face.

First, we need to take decisive and effective action to tackle climate change. The Climate Change Bill will establish legally binding targets for cutting UK emissions.


Jona Hug
Posted on 23 Jan 2008 9:55 am (Report this annotation)

Would not the realease of more thermo nuclear radioactive routine operational disharges into our occeans, not further contribute to the rising temperiture of our seas, climet change and the melting of the polar Ice Caps, penoltimatly?

Will the continuose operational Radio-Active emisions from the UKs Fleet of Nuclear Power stations, that despite only having a limited 30 year working life span, remain radioactive for tens of thousands of years, of which disharges can be seen Glowing with the nacked eye near nuclear facilities or from

In the River Severn Estuarie, or try;
Berkeley, Gloucestershire, Bradwell, Essex, Calder Hall, Sellafield, Cumbria, Chapelcross, Dumfries and Galloway, Dungeness B Kent, Hartlepool, Heysham Power Stations Lancashire, Hinkley Point B, Somerset,
Hunterston B, North Ayrshire Oldbury, Gloucestershire temp. suspende cos fire in May 2007, Sizewell A,Suffolk, Sizewell B, Suffolk, Torness, East Lothian,
Trawsfynydd Gwynedd, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset, Wylfa, Anglesey. Or if your lucky in the write place, you can just see the Franco-British Nuclear Forums nuclear liabilitie Gravelines, Nuclear Reactors discharges glowing away in France, adding to the Channles Radioactivity.

We are all aware of the combined Dangers that such nuclear exploitaition make us face, in the light of such accidents;

1991, 21st August - HUNTERSTON-5 ACR, UK

This advanced gas-cooled nuclear power station requiring up to 40 million gallons of seawater per hour for turbine condenser cooling was shut down when thousands of jellyfish were sucked into the screens of the seawater cooling intake. (Nuclear News, October 1991)

1951, February - NORTH WALES, U.K.

The Trawsfynydd nuclear power plant was shut down because of fears expressed by Britain's Nuclear Installations Inspectorate that the two 25-year old reactors there were operating with weakened welds in their pressure vessels. (New Scientist, 9 February 1991).


The Dounreay fast breeder reactor was closed down after liquid sodium leaked from the secondary cooling system and burnt on contact with air. (NENIG Briefing (P.A.) 5/90. WISE 333 1/6/90).

1990, 25 February - SELLAFIELD, U.K.

Following studies on the high occurrence of childhood leukemia around Sellafield, a report for the U.K. Government indicates the strongest link to date between exposure of workers to radiation and their likelihood of passing damaged genes to their offspring. Dr. Berry, counselling scientist for Sellafield, has commented that if workers are worried about their children manifesting leukaemia as a result of their exposure, then they should not have any. (A.B.C. News 25/2/1990)

1990, 11th February - HINKLEY POINT, U.K.

A near-accident involving a scenario that, according to Greenpeace Canada, almost led to a meltdown, occurred at the Hinkley Point Nuclear Power Station. An attempt to cover up the problem ended 5 days later, when a Member of Parliament, Paddy Ashdown, revealed the incident on 16 February. (Greenpeace, Canada; WISE 328 2/90)

1990, 31 January - (NAVAL REACTOR) U.K.

The U.K. Department of Defence today revealed that it has discovered a crack in the nuclear reactor of the H.M.S. Warsprite, and admitted that, if it had not been detected, this could have led to a large release of radiation. As a result the Department has ordered tests on all nuclear vessel to ascertain if similar defects exist in their reactors. (A.B.C. Radio National 31/1/90)

1989, December - SELLAFIELD, U.K.

Radioactive contamination detected at the Fairlie station where spent fuel flasks from Hunterston are transferred to flat bed railway trucks on their way to Sellafield. Caesium 137 levels were 30 times greater than the highest post Chernobyl concentrations and 100 times the levels found in Strathalyde where the station is located. (SCRAM Scotland Dec 1989/Jan 1990. WISE 323/324, 22/12/1989)

1989, December - NAVY, CUMBRIA, U.K.

On 8 December, 1989 30 gallons of contaminated cooling liquid spilled from a nuclear submarine into the VSEL shipyard in Barrow-in Furneac, Cumbria, U.K.. (Anti-Nuclear Network Newsletter Feb/Mar 90; WISE 328 2/90)

1989, 27th October - (CHERNOBYL) U.K.

Fish contaminated by the Chernobyl accident are still being found in British rivers, three years after the explosion took place, according to the U.K. Agriculture Ministry. It said that brown trout caught by anglers throughout Britain contain the highest levels of Cesium 134 and 137. Pike and Perch were also affected, but not as badly. ("Japan Times" 27/10/89; WTSE-321 17/11/89).

1989, 19th June - SPRINGFIELDS WORKS, U.K.

Sometime between December 1988 and May 1989, while working on duties relating to recovery of uranium, an employee took in an amount of uranium exceeding the annual dose and was detected by the whole body monitor on the site. "WISE" 326/7, 9/2/1990)

1989, 13th June - DOUNREAY, U.K.

A seepage of liquid was discovered from a construction joint on a stainless steel lined concrete, sludge settling tank containing uranium and plutonium bearing material. According to the industry magazine Atom, the rate of seepage was 100 mile per day, but no mention was made as to how long the leak had been there before being discovered. (Atom (U.K.), Jan 1990; WISE 326/7, 9/2/1990)

1989, 11th May - WINFRITH, U.K.

Some clothing fibres contaminated with traces of cobalt were discharged from the laundry used to clean protective clothing by penetrating through a hole in the metal filter fitted to the tumble driers exhaust, while others had by-passed the filters. The investigation team concluded that contamination had been contained within the site fence. (Atom (U.K.), Jan. 1990; WISE 326/7, 9/2/1990)

1989, March - SELLAFIELD, U.K.

During operations to dump down radioactive dust in a disused corridor prior to decontamination and decommissioning, a small amount of liquid contaminated with Plutonium and Americium leaked through the floor to the the work area below. According to BNFL, the plant operators, contamination marginally exceeded the notification level and there was no release to the outside environment or contamination of personnel. (Atom (U.K.) Jan 1990; WISE 326/7, 9/2/1990)

1988, December - BURGHFIELD, BERKSHIRE, U.K.

An explosion occurred at the Burghfield Atomic Weapons Estab. in Berkshire, U.K. This facility assembles and dismantles nuclear warheads. ("The Guardian" U.K. 3/12/88, WISE NC 303 9/12/88)

1988, December - U.K.

There are 1250 nuclear sites licensed by the U.K. Dept of Environment to discharge radioactivity into the environment on a routine basis. However, because of a secrecy clause in the 1960 Radioactive Substances Act the public is unaware that these sites exist and there is no published data on the amount of radiation discharged. (WISE NC 303 p.6)

1988, November - OLDBURY, U.K.

An accident at another of the U.K.'s aging Magnox Nuclear Reactors has only just come to light, despite the fact it occurred a year ago. An electrical failure at the Oldbury Power Station caused the loss of coolant to one of the 2 reactors and resulted in the build up of heat in the reactor. (NENIG Briefing No 22 (Scotland) 9/88, WISE NC 302, p7, 25/11/88)


A worker was injured when fire broke out at one of the two Berkeley Magnox reactors in Gloucestershire in the U.K. ("Western Daily Press" (U.K.) 13/10/88, WISE NC 302 p.7, 25/11/88)

1988, September - LONDON, U.K.

Recently leaked documents have forced the UK's Central Electric Generating Board (CEGB) to at last admit to serious problems with its Advanced Gas Cooled Reactors. The documents report on the problem of severe vibrations in the fuel rods if they are removed while the reactor is running at full power. The vibrations are so violent that there is a risk that the fuel rods could break and fall to the bottom of the reactor where they could cause a serious accident. ("NENIG Briefing No 15", WISE NC 297, 2/9/88 p.5)

1988, April - U.K.

British Defence Ministry officials admit they have no idea how or when to dispose the Navy's outdated nuclear submarines. Although the nuclear reactors will be removed the hulls will still be radioactive. (Sydney Morning Heralds 1/4/88)

1988, March - SCOTLAND, U.K.

A survey carried out this year in Scotland claims that levels of radioactivity in certain areas are now as much as six times higher than any previously recorded in Britain. ("The Scotsman" 23 Mar 88, WISE 22 Apr 88 NC 291)

1988, February - U.K.

British Nuclear Fuels (BNF) is planning to fly regular consignments of Plutonium to Japan from Preatwick in Glasgow, beginning in 1992 despite fears of nuclear accident or terrorist attack. ("Financial Times Energy Economist", SCRAM Journal, WISE NC 287 19/2/88)

1988, 23rd January - DUNGENESS, ARG2, U.K.

Two tons of carbon dioxide used to cool the No.2 AGR at Dungeness on the south-east coast of England leaked from a broken seal on 23/1/1988. A CEGB spokesperson said that "it was a very low level of radioactivity -- a very normal kind of industrial accident". The reactor was kept running and no site emergency was announced. ("WISE" London)

1987, December - DOUNREAY, SCOTLAND U.K.

A worker at the Dounreay PFR (prototype fast reactor) reprocessing plant received a "significant" dose of radiation to his hand in an accident on 9 December. Although the contaminated worker was wearing full protective clothing and was not directly contaminated, the radiation dose which penetrated his glove was in excess of the safety limit. ("SCRAM Journal" (Scotland) March/April 1988)

1987, November - SELLAFIELD, U.K.

A leak was discovered from a pipe connected to a pump located in the interspace between the primary and secondary walls of the storage silos which occurred during the removal of the pump and pipe for maintenance. Modifications are now in progress to replace pump and flexible pipe with a permanent rigid pipe work and pump System at the Sellafield Nuclear reprocessing plant. (Atom (U.K.) Sept 88, WISE NC 299 7/10/88)

1967, October - DOUNREAY, U.K.

The Prototype Fast Reactor at Dounreay had to reduce power in early October because seaweed had entered the cooling water pump house. It had passed through a special 2 million pound (U.K.) seaweed barrier, built only last year. (SCRAM Journal (Scotland) Nov/Dec 1987, WISE 283, 20/11/87)

1987, October - DUNGENESS, U.K.

The Dungeness Magnox reactors in the U.K. had to be closed down during storm on 16 October not, as has been widely reported, because of grid failures, but because the system frequency was increasing, causing the generators to run too fast (SCRAM Nov/Dec 1987, WISE NC 283 20/11/87)

1987, October - HEYSHAM 2, U.K.

Reactor 2 was scrammed because of a fault on the main electrical system. (SCRAM Journal Nov/Dec 1987, WISE NC 28320/11/87)

1987, September - HARWELL, U.K.

A spillage of radioactive material at the U.K. Atomic Energy Agency's (UKAEA) Harwell Laboratory led to the intake of Plutonium-238 by a research scientist who was working at a glove box in the main radiochemistry building. ("Atom 371" - WISE NC 279 18/9/87)

1987, 4th September - SELLAFIELD, U.K.

Workers at Sellafield took 80 minutes to find a leak of radioactive Carbon Dioxide. The incident led to contamination of an area near the Calder Hall reactor. (SCRAM Journal, Nov/Dec 1987, WISE NC 283 20/11/87)

1987, 15th August - HUNTERSTON, U.K.

Approximately two tonnes of "mildly radioactive" Carbon Dioxide leaked from the gas treatment plant. (SCRAM Journal, Nov/Dec 1987, WISE NC 283, 20/11/87)

1987, August - SELLAFIELD, U.K.

Two workers were contaminated by radiation from a vacuum cleaner. (SCRAM Journal, Nov/Dec 1987, WISE NC 283, 20/11/87)

1987, August - BERKELEY, U.K.

Two workers received contamination to their skin during maintenance work on the secondary shielding at Berkeley reactor. (SCRAM Journal (Scotland) Nov/Dec 1987, WISE NC 283, 20/11/87)

1987, August - U.K.

A contaminated railway wagon in the U.K. travelled from Sellafield to HEYSHAM where it stood for four months before radioactive rust fell onto the tracks and was detected during a "routine check" in August. A confidential CEGB report, revealed in the "Guardian" (27/8/87) says that 108 of all flasks and flatrols used to carry them are contaminated. (SCRAM Journal (Scotland) Nov/Dec 1987, WISE NC 283, 20/11/87)

1987, August - SELLAFIELD, U.K.

An accident halted reprocessing less than one week after it had restarted following a three month break. (SCRAM Journal Sept/Oct 1987, WISE NC 279, 18/9/87)

1987, August - TRAWSFYNYDD, U.K.

Two recent accidents at the Trawsfynydd Magnox Station have fuelled criticism of the CEGB's "open information policy". The first occurred on 1 August when 100 gallons of liquid waste spilled from a pipe carrying it to a storage tank. Local ME, Daffyd Ellis Thomas, has complained that he was not informed of the accident until 5 days later. On 10 August an explosion in the turbine hall put two gas circulators in one of the reactors out of action. The CEGB originally denied that there had been an explosion, although they later confirmed that the blast had blown a door off its hinges and caused 20,000 pounds worth of damage. (SCRAM Journal Sept/Oct 1987, WISE NC 279, 18/9/87)

1987, July - HUNTERSTON 1, U.K.

A fuel leak was discovered in reactor 1 of the Hunteraton A Magnox station on 9 July. The tiny hole was apparently caused by a "random defect" and the fuel will now treated as normal. (SCRAM Journal Sept/Oct 1987, WISE NC 279, 18/9/87)

1987, July - MAGNOX ANGLESEY, U.K.

One of the Magnox reactors at Wylfa in Anglesey has been shut down for three months because of a failure in the fuel loading machine. (SCRAM Journal July/Aug 1987, WISE NC 18/9/87)


There was a dramatic increase in deaths from leukaemia in 1986 in West Cumbria now well known because of Sellafield. ("Whitehaven News" 9/Jul 87, WISE NC 277 24/7/87)

1987, 24th June - DUNGENESS, U.K.

A container of irradiated fuel was derailed in a siding while leaving Dungeness A. (SCRAM Journal July/Aug 1987 - WISE NC 279, 10/9/87)

1987, 8th June - BERKELEY, U.K.

A fire in the turbine hall of the Berkeley reactor in Britain closed the reactor. (SCRAM Journal July/Aug 1987 - WISE NC 279, 10/9/87)

1987, 29th May - HEYSHAM 1, U.K.

Radioactive oil was emitted from HEYSHAM 1 AGR during a cleaning operation. (SCRAM Journal July/August 1987 - WISE NC 279 18/9/87)

1987, 12th May - HUNTERSTON AGR B1, U.K.

Following refuelling a mechanical problem in a fuel channel gas unit caused the gas outlet temperature of the AGR reactor B1 in Hunterston to rise above normal operating limits. The normal temperature of the carbon dioxide coolant leaving the fuel channels is 648 degrees. During the incident, the temperature reached 710 degrees for two minutes. Sudden changes in core temperature can lead to an "asymmetric reactivity fault" -a potential precursor to an AGR core meltdown. (SCRAM Journal July/August 1987 - WISE NV 279 18/9/87 )

1987, April - (CHERNOBYL) U.K.

Western containments are not so radically different from that at Chernobyl, an I.A.E.A. safety division official told the International Conference on Nuclear Containment. ("Nucleonics Week" 23/4/87, WISE NC 276 3 Jul 87)

1987, March - HARTLEPOOLE, U.K.

A boiler tube leak at one of the twin Hartlepool advanced gas cooled reactors (AGRs) in the U.K. allowed about 8 metric tone of water to escape into the carbon dioxide coolant. ("Nucleonics Weeks" 2 Apr 87, WISE NC 276 3 Jul 87)

1987, January - SELLAFIELD, U.K.

Twelve workers at the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant in Cumbria have been affected by a leak of radioactivity, according to British Nuclear Fuels. ("The Daily News" 21/1/87)

1987, 11th January - U.K.

A 20-tonne lorry believed to be carrying nuclear weapons slid off an icy country road and overturned near the top-secret Royal Navy armament depot at Dean Hill, Wiltshire, yesterday. Police and troops surrounded the area and details of the accident, including the lorry's load, are being kept secret by the British Government. ("The Daily News" 12/1/87, "The Age" 13/1/87)

1987, January - IRISH SEA, WALES, U.K.

The level of Americium-241 arising in the Irish Sea is increasing and in 70-100 years the amount will be greater than the amount pumped directly into the sea in the mid 1970s (when discharges were at their highest). This is because Am-241 is a decay product of Plutonium-241. Am-21 is known to be 57 times more toxic than Plutonium-241. Now traces of Am-241 have been found in Trawafynydd Lake beside Trawafynydd nuclear power Station in Wales. ("Welsh Anti Nuclear Alliance Newsletter" Winter 86/98, "Core Waste Paper" Jan 87, WISE NC 270 13/3/87

1986, 28th November - SELLAFIELD, U.K.

An investigation was launched on how 230,000 litres of low-level radio-active waste were accidentally discharged into the Irish Sea from the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant. ("The Age" 29/11/86)

1986, November - HINKLEY POINT, SOMERSET, U.K.

Corrosion problems found during a regular shutdown of one of the Magnox reactors at Hinkley Point, Somerset have called into question whether the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) should continue with its policy of extending the lifetime of these old reactors from 25-30 years. The corrosion problem was, until recently thought to be "impossible". ("Times" 6/11/86-7/11/86, WISE NC 263 21/11/86)

1986, October - (CHERNOBYL) SWEDEN and U.K.

According to the Swedish News In. 5/10/86, extremely high levels of radioactivity have been measured among farmers living in an area of Sweden badly contaminated by fallout from Chernobyl. Radioactive contamination of soil and vegetation following Chernobyl is proving more persistent than expected in the U.K.. ("New Scientist" 23/10/86, WISE NC 263 31/11/86

1986, 11th September - SELLAFIELD, U.K.

The Sellafield nuclear plant in the U.K. continues to draw criticism for radio-active leaks. The latest cases are radio-active bubbles found in the ocean off the coast where the plant is situated. ("The West Australian" 12/9/86)

1986, August - SELLAFIELD, U.K.

The 'New Scientist' reported on August 14 that autopsies on the bodies of typical former workers at the Sellafield nuclear plant have revealed concentrations of Plutonium 100's and in one case 1,000's of times higher than the general public. The study by Doc. Popplewell from the U.K. National Radiological Protection Board also found that concentrations of Plutonium in the bodies of Cumbrians who did NOT work at the plant average 50-25%. higher than elsewhere in Britain. High levels of cancer have been found in the population around Sellafield. ("Cumbrians Opposed to a Radioactive Environment", WISE NC257, 22 Aug 86)

1986, June - GLASGOW, SCOTLAND, U.K.

A fire at a Scottish nuclear power station complex has triggered an automatic reactor shutdown. ("The Daily News" 17/6/86, "The West Australian" 18/6/86)

1986, May - SELLAFIELD, U.K.

In the fourth leak incident at the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant this year two workers were exposed to Plutonium oxide during routine maintenance. ("The Age", "The West Australian" 23/5/86). Over the past 34 years the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant has dumped a quarter of a tonne of Plutonium into the Irish Sea; the Irish Sea is consequently known as the most radio-active sea in the world, and Britain as the world's deliberate polluter. Radio-active house dust in the area is up to 6,000 times the level in other parts of the country and Plutonium levels in river estuaries are up to 27,000 times higher than other British rivers. ("National Times" 30/5 -5/6/86 )

1986, 18th May - U.K.

Two Greenpeace members have boarded a British ship carrying spent nuclear fuel in an attempt to highlight the ship's vulnerability to attack. ("The West Australian" 19/5/86)

1986, March - SELLAFIELD, U.K.

Another five workers were contaminated with radioactivity in another leak at the Sellafield nuclear processing plant in Cumbria. This is the fourth incident in the past five weeks. ("The Age" 3/3/86, "The West Australian" 4/3/86) As the people of the village of Seascale continue to live their lives in the shadow of the Sellafield nuclear plant, leukeemia is 10 times the national average among the area's children under 15. ("The West Australian" 18/3/86)

1986, February - SELLAFIELD, U.K.

Britain's only nuclear processing plant has had its second radioactive leak this month amid complaints from Irish officials over the discharge of uranium from the plant into the Irish Sea. ("The Age", "The West Australian" 20/2/86)

1986, February -- WINDSCALE (SELLAFIELD) U.K.

A Plutonium mist has leaked at Britain's only nuclear processing plant at Sellafield. ("The Daily News" 6/2/86, "The Age" 7/3/86)

1986, February - TRAWSFYNYDD 1, WALES, U.K.

A pressure valve opened on top of one of the two heat exchangers which generate steam at the No 1 reactor at Trawsfynydd nuclear power station. 13 tons of coolant carbon dioxide were released to the atmosphere in 14 minutes before the valve was manually closed. Small quantities of neutron induced radioactivity (not fission products) escaped in the gas. The Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) which operates the plant, described the accident as "minor". According to "The Guardian" (March 7) the radiation released by the accident was estimated to have extended 5-19 kms down wind from the plant. The releases included Manganese-56, Tritium, Sulphur-35 and Cobalt-60. (SCRAM Journal Apr/May 86, "Western Maila" 3 Mar 86, "The Guardian" 7 Mar 86, WISE NC 254, 13/6/86)

1985, December -- HINKLEY POINT, U.K.

Five hundred workers were given anti-radiation pills after a gas leak at the Hinkley Point B nuclear power station in South West Britain. ("The Daily News" 4/12/85)

1985, August -- LONDON, U.K.

A major British study has found that the death rate from prostate cancer among some nuclear workers is eight times higher than the national average. ("The West Australian" 19/8/85)

1985, 11th June - U.K. OFF CALIFORNIA COAST

A 40-tonne fishing boat has rammed a British nuclear submarine, the HMS Resolution, causing slight damage. ("The West Australian" 12/6/85)

1985, April - LONDON, UK

It has been alleged that a 78 year old anti-nuclear campaigner, found slain near her home last year, was murdered by British intelligence. ("Daily News" 22/4/85)

1985, 17th January - LONDON, U.K..

A Greenham Common peace protector claims that she broke through security at the base and "twiddled the knobs" on a cruise missile launcher. ("The West Australian" 19th January 1985)

1984, May - U.S, OFF U.K.

A US nuclear-powered submarine collided with barrels containing nuclear waste dumped on the seabed off the South West coast of England. ("The Age", "Daily News" 29th May 1984)

1984, April - ALDERMASTON, U.K.

An inquest is being held to decide whether a scientists' death resulted from his exposure to plutonium while working at the Aldermaston atomic weapons research based in 1965. ("Daily News" 10th April 1984)

1984, February - WINDSCALE, U.K.

A stretch of Cumbrian beach contaminated by radioactive waste last November is still closed as a precaution. According to reports, the contamination was exacerbated by inadequate instruments to monitor the plants operations, and poor communications between staff. ("The Age" 16th February 1980)

1984, January - LONDON, U.K.

A Jaguar fighter crashed near Britain's top secret chemical defense establishments at Parton Down where research into germ and chemical warfare is carried out. ("West Australian" 19th January 1984)

1983, November - WINDSCALE, U.K.
A stretch of coast near the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant has been contaminated by radioactive waste. ("Financial Review" "West Australian" 21st; "The Age" 22nd November 1983)

1983. October - LONDON, U.K.

British nuclear waste will be stored in a diffused chemical mine beneath homes and factories at Billingham, near Riddlesborough and also 95 kms from London. Residents of the area are unhappy. ("West Australian" 24th/27th October 1983)

1983, September - WINDSCALE, U.K.

An official report said 33 people may have died from the Windscale nuclear plant accident in 1957. ("West Australian" 29th September 1983)

1983, August - LONDON, U.K.

The latest nuclear power station built in Britain had shut for a week only five days after starting operations due to a steam leak. A spokesman said there was no radiation or threat to the public. The cost of the plant has risen from the original $A425 million to $A1156 million and the Central Electricity Generating Board said the plant would have to operate for 30 years at full power to pay for itself. ("The Age" 9th April 1983)

1983, February - WINDSCALE, U.K.

The 1957 Windscale reactor disaster - Britain's worst nuclear accident - may have caused up to 260 cases of thyroid cancer, 13 of them fatal, according to the National Radiological Protection Board. ("Daily News" 21st February 1983)

1982, November - SELLAFIELD & DOUNREAY, U.K.

10 kgs of Plutonium produced at the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant is missing. 10 kgs is enough to make a nuclear bomb. The report said that between 1970 and 1980, 94 kgs of uranium was missing from Dounreay and 47 kgs of Plutonium from Windscale. ("West Australian" 8th November 1982)

1981, November, U.K. (& FRANCE)

In a recently released report, a team of British scientists, who were investigating seaweed around the Channel Islands, claim that radionuclides were concentrated 100 to 10,000 times in bladder wrack, and although these concentrations are quite low, potential problems arise because large quantities of seaweed are used widely on farmland and small holdings as fertilizer. Thousands of fruit and vegetables already sold in the U.K. have been affected. One of the Channel Islands is only 8 km away from the re-processing plant at La Hague, France. (W.I.S.E. Vol.3 No.6 November 1981 p.16)

1981, 4th October - WINDSCALE, U.K.

British Nuclear Fuels Ltd (BNFL) announced on October 8 that a release of irradiated Iodine-131 occurred on Sunday, October 4, from the Windscale reprocessing plant. The company did not inform the public of the leak until 4 days after it happened. (W.I.S.E. Vol.3 No.6 November 1981 p.12) A radiation leak has contaminated milk supplies within a 3 km radius of the Windscale nuclear plant in Cumbria. The accident was discovered last Sunday (4/10/81) but news of it was released only on the 10th October, 1981 by British Nuclear Fuels. The plant was shut down for 24 hours. ("Sydney Horning Herald" 10th October 1981)

1981, June - U.K.

In Britain 96,000 pounds sterling was paid out by British Nuclear Fuels to two families and a worker who is still employed at the Windscale reprocessing plant. The two workers died from cancer of the pancreas and leukemia. The man still employed at B.N.F. received 5,000 pounds sterling for pain and suffers from cataracts in both eyes and a kidney tumour. These payments are out of court settlements on cases financed by the General and Municipal Workers Union. The latter case is of great importance because the man was exposed to a lower level of radiation than the other two men. The decision recognized that low-level radiation can be proved to cause cancer. (W.I.S.E. Vol 3. No.4 p.6) .. see entry - May U.S.A. p.40


The British nuclear submarine Valiant. is undergoing repairs for a minor leak in its reactor cooling system. A naval spokesman said the source of the leak had been identified and was being repaired. ("The Age" 21st May 1981)


Severe criticism of past safety arrangements at British Nuclear Fuels nuclear waste-fuel reprocessing plant at Windscale, Cumbria, have been made by three investigators appointed to examine the organization. They have produced 15 major and many minor recommendations affecting the management of the factory, which handles all the waste fuel from nuclear power stations in Britain.

The investigation began more than 18 months ago after instances of workers being contaminated and radioactive liquid leaking. The report, in describing some of the more important incidents, disclosed that more than 100,000 curies of radioactivity had escaped over a period of years from one silo. The management was blamed for that accident, having shown, the report said, lack of judgement and of safety consciousness. British Nuclear Fuels said last night that the report was fair, comprehensive and constructive. ("West Australian", 13th April 1981)

1980, December - UNITED KINGDOM

Nine people have been accidentally affected by radioactive substances while working in Britain's power stations, according to a quarterly report by the Health and Safety Executive. The report lists 13 incidents and says other workers were exposed to possible radiation from contamination of floors, corridors and other surfaces. ("West Australian" 1st December 1980)

1980, September - DOUNREAY, SCOTLAND

A B.B.C. television programme alleged that Plutonium was lost from an experimental reactor at Dounreay in 1973 and 1977. The Director of Dounreay, although not sure of the whereabouts of the fuel rods, remains adamant that the fuel rods were not stolen. ("The Age" 9th September 1980)


Water leaking into the core of a reactor containing radioactive fuel rods caused shutdown of Nuclear Power Station at Trawsfynydd in North Wales. (W.I.S.E. Vol.2 No.5 July/September 1980 p.27)

1980, 18th June - WINDSCALE, U.K.

175 workers at Windscale Nuclear Plant became ill after drinking contaminated water. Fault in the system allowed water from the polluted River Eben, which is used to cool the reactor, to enter the drinking water through a valve. (A.A.P. "Daily News" 18/6/1980; "West Australian" 19/6/1980)

1980, May - DUNGENESS, UK

Dungeness Reactor 2 was closed down when severe cracks were discovered in the primary cooling circuit. ("The Guardian", filth January, 1980)

1980, 12th March - ALDERMASTON, U.K.

A third worker at Britain's top secret Aldermaston Nuclear Weapons Plant has died of cancer. DONALD LESLIE SENT had worked at the plant for 20 years and was one of nearly 70 workers who lodged claims against the Minister for Defence, alleging exposure to radiation at the Atomic Research Establishment in Berkshire. The BBC-2 television program "Newsnight" quoted a senior Aldermaston scientist saying standards were lower than at civilian atomic stations, which again raises the question: "Is there any 'safe' level of exposure to radiation?" (AAP/AP "Daily News" 12th March 1980; "Sydney Morning Herald" 12th March 1980)

1980, 12th February - BRADWELL, U.K.

British authorities have closed the Bradwell Plant after electronic scans showed welding cracks in the cooling system of No.1 reactor. Failure of the primary coolant could cause critical overheating in the reactor core and possible release of radioactive materials. ("Financial Review" 12th February, 1980)

1980, 11th February - BRADWELL 1, U.K.

The No.1 reactor at Bradwell has been closed for inspection since last summer and found to be suffering from major cracks in its primary cooling circuits. The affected primary circuit contains high pressure carbon dioxide which transfers heat from the reactor to the steam generators. Failure of this circuit could result in serious overheating in the reactor core and a possible relesse of radioactive material. The shutdown could last for months or even years.

It is now known that Bradwell, Dungeness, Hinkley Point and Sizewell, all Magnox reactors built in the 1960's, have serious defects in primary circuit welds. Similar faults are believed to exist at Windscale, Chapel Cross and Hunterston in Scotland. ("Guardian" 11th February, 1980, International Nuclear News Service No.12 January/April 1980)

1980, 14th January - DUNGENESS, ENGLAND

The Dungeness plant was shut down because of cracks found in the cooling gas circuits. (W.I.S.E. Vol.2 No.3 p.7)

1980, 11th January - HINKLEY POINT, U.K.

Reports indicate that there is severe cracking at Hinkley Point A. The primary coolant circuit has no expansion bellows. It is believed that the largest cracks ever discovered in any nuclear system have been found at Hinkley, the largest being more than 3 metres long. ("Guardian" 11th January, 1980; International Nuclear News Service No.12 January/April 1980)

1980, 11th January - DUNGENESS, U.K.

Both reactors at Dungeness will be out of action while engineers check for dangerous cracks. Safety engineers are known to be embarrassed by the discovery of bad cracks up to a metre long since last spring. The cracks have been found in the pipes which regulate the gas coolant. Failure of the pipes and loss of coolant would lead to a serious emergency which would result in a core meltdown. Engineers have been reported as saying that because of their age (Dungeness A came into operation in 1964) and the costs of repair, neither will be brought back into use. ("Guardian" 11th January, 1980, International Nuclear News Service No. 12 January/April 1980)


Studies by Manchester University show cases of Myeloid lukemia has doubled between the late 1960's and early 1970's. No chemical cause found but cause linked with increased radioactive pollution monitored off the North-West coast. Cover-up is suspected because:

-Public secrecy after radioactive releases when reactors were used for bomb production;

-Unexplained failure to publish leukemia statistics since 1970.

These results are in line with studies in the U.S.A. where a two to three times increase in cancer (particularly leukemia) can be found in the vicinity of nuclear plants. Despite this the British Government is relaxing control on dumping of low level wastes, preparing to raise objections to high level waste dumping and proposing to raise allowable radiation exposure levels to workers and the public in line with recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (W.I.S.E. November/December 1979)

1979, 30th December - U.K.

Britain's biggest earthquake for 50 years shook reactors at Windscale, Chapel Cross, Huntereton, Cumbria and at Torneua near Dunbar, Heycham and Hartlepool where reactors are being built. Few of the reactors have been designed to withstand earthquakes. (Newspaper article by Geoffrey Lean and Brian Wilson, 30th December 1979, in International Nuclear News Service p.8)

1979, November - WINDSCALE, U.K.

The widow of a Windscale worker whose husband died of leukemia at the age of 36 was awarded 67,000 pounds sterling by the Carlisle Crown Court. This was the first case of its type. On two previous occasions, British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL) settled out of court while refusing to accept liability. All three cases were started by the General and Municipal Workers, which has two more cases pending against BNFL.(W.I.S.E. Op.Cit. p.14)

1979, 6th November - COPENHURST, U.K.

Uranium gas accidentally released from a test rig at Copenhurst enrichment plant. (W.I.S.E. Ibid)

1979, October - WINDSCALE, U.K.

In Britain, Government scientists will investigate whether a mysterious rise in the incidence of blood cancer in Northern England is due to "radioactive pollution from the nearby Windscale nuclear plant". 12 doctors diagnosed 12 cases of leukemia in one area, 10 victims have died. Scientists at Manchester University have found a marked rise in Leukemia deaths in Blackpool, Burnley, Lancaster and Preston areas surrounding Windscale with hardly any change over the rest of Britain. - "Another university team discovered levels of radioactivity in the adjoining Irish Sea hundreds of times greater than in other coastal regions". ("Daily News", 3rd October 1979)

1979, 4th August - U.K.

Five A.G.R. reactors (Advanced Gas Cooled) have been in use in the U.K. but "after series of disastrous failures of design and equipment only two are now working. The American system of letting private companies build and run A.G.R. Stations seem more risky than the British way". ("Weekend News" 4th August 1979)

1979, 23rd July - ALDERMASTON, U.K.

Government scientist Peter Allen killed in an explosion at Aldermaston Atomic Weapons Research Station. (W.I.S.E. No 6 October 1979)

1979, 17th July - WINDSCALE, U.K.

Six men contaminated by radiation when fire broke out. A spokesman for the plant said the contamination was 'very minor' but more tests were being made on the men. He added the fire was quickly put out and there was no danger to the public. Staff were evacuated and given medical checks. (Reuter, "Sydney Morning Herald", 18th July 1979)

1979, 5th May - DUNGENESS, ENGLAND

Dungeness plant closed after cracks found in cooling system. (W.I.S.E. Ibid; "West Australian", 7/5/1979)

1979, February - U.K.

British dockyard workers exposed to radiation while working on nuclear submarines show a greater than normal incidence of damaged chromosomes. These results are based on a ten-year study. The greater the radiation dose the worker received the greater the number of cells showing chromosome damage. Damage occurs even when radiation exposures are below internationally agreed safety standards. ("New Scientist", 15th February, 1979)

1979, February - U.K.

Biggest accident since 1971 contaminated ground near plant. Tens of thousands of curies of radioactive liquid released. ("Sydney Morning Herald" 24/3/1979)

1979, January - WINDSCALE, U.K.

Residents living near Windscale Plant exposed to radiation levels 15 times more than indicated; levels double long term value recommended by I.C.R.P. ("New Ecologist", January/February 1979)

1978, 28th August - ALDERMASTON, U.K.

Britain's main nuclear research station and Atomic Weapons Research Establishment was closed by Ministry of Defence, when 12 workers were contaminated with plutonium dust. Unions of the workers believed that the plutonium dust may have leaked through the plant's ventilation system. ("West Australian", 26th August, 1978) Three laundry women have suffered plutonium contamination of the lungs. The laundry deals with protective clothing in the Active area.. One of the women has not worked in the laundry for some years but she still carries a lung burden of plutonium above the permitted maximum and perhaps higher. Women in the laundry are not considered as radiation workers and are not required by law to be regularly monitored for radioactivity. (W.I.S.E. No 4 March, 1979)

1977 December - HUNTERSTON B, U.K.

Unprecedented failure in which 1,000 gallons of sea water leaked into the reactor. Cost of accident: 4 million pounds sterling. (Ian Breach "Windscale Fallout", p.139)

1977, May - WINCHESTER, U.K.

Semi-trailer carrying a 15-tonne container of radioactive nuclear fuel overturned near Winchester. Five people injured. (Legislative Research Service Paper, Parliamentary Library, Canberra)

1977, 10th May - DOUNREAY, SCOTLAND

A reaction between water and 2.5 kilos of sodium lifted the concrete covers off a solid waste disposal facility. (Thieberger, p.12)

1977, 6th April - WINDSCALE, U.K.

Plutonium contamination blown into laboratory after a reaction between plutonium nitrate and carbon powder in a sealed handling facility. (Thieberger, p.12; Parliamentary Service Paper, Parliamentary Library, Canberra)

1977, 6th April - WINDSCALE, U.K.

Site and adjacent area contaminated by Ruthenium 106. (Legislative Research Service Paper, Parliamentary Library, Canberra; Wakstein, C; "The Ecologist", May 1977 p.140)

1976, November - WINDSCALE, U.K.

Leak of radioactive waste. Beach contaminated by tritium. (Parliamentary Legislative Research Service Paper, Parliament House, Canberra)

1976, October - WINDSCALE, U.K.

100 gallons per day of contaminated water leaking from an old waste storage silo. This incident was not reported to the Government for two months, and eventually set off the Windscale Public Enquiry. (Parliamentary Legislative Research Service Paper, Parliament House, Canberra)

1976, October - WINDSCALE, U.K.

All British nuclear fuel workers received above internationally agreed upon radiation levels in 1976. (Intern. Press/Nucleus, 16th August, 1978)


Further leak of radioactive waste from steel drums after corrosion. (Nucleus, 25th July, 1979)

1976, April - WINDSCALE, U.K.

Leak of radioactive waste from still drums caused by corrosion. (Parliamentary Legislative Research Service Paper, Parliamentary Library, Canberra)

1976, January - WINDSCALE, U.K.

Leak of radioactive waste in storage tank caused by corrosion. (Parliamentary Research Service Paper, Parliamentary Library, Canberra)

1975, December - U.K.

Nuclear waste train derailed in town on transit from Barrow to Windscale reprocessing plant. ("Times", 20th December, 1975, p.1)

1975, May - WINDSCALE, U.K.

Leak of radioactive waste found its way through two successive leaks. Corrosion is a possible cause. (Wakstein, C., Nucleus, 25th July, 1979)

1974, November - WINDSCALE, UK

Monitoring failure at reprocessing plant, worker allowed to leave with plutonium on his shoos. (C. Wakstein, "The Myth of Nuclear Safety"; Nucleus, 25th July, 1979, p.15)

1974, 23rd January - CHERBOURG, U.K.

An appeal sent out by radio: "Urgent notice for navigators from Cherbourg - blue container, two metres long, containing radioactive material is lost in the North Sea 56 degrees 36'N., 00 degrees 55'E. In case of discovery do not open, and immediately inform Coast guard Aberdeen". (Nucleus, 15/7/79; Thieberger. p.8)

1973, 28th NOVEMBER - U.K.

Wives of employees at Britain nuclear installations started a "love strike", fearing radiation sickness. Nearly all 2,000 employees at Windscale atomic centre were affected. Union delegate, John Nuctur, said that "the young women had told him they refused to have any intimate contact with their husbands because their sweat might radioactively contaminate the linen." (Nucleus, 25 Jul 79; Thieberger p.8).

1973, September - WINDSCALE, U.K.

Radiation leak in the reprocessing plant; 34 workers were irradiated. (Jean Geue A.A.E.C.) Head and plant at reprocessing facility went abruptly and alarmingly out of service when an accident occurred involving the inadvertent attempt to fill a vessel already containing highly active residues. (Ian Breach, Windscale Fallout, p.37)

1972, 14th December - DOUNREAY, SCOTLAND.

Anonymous telephone call alerted security staff who found two parcels in the plant. 1,500 staff members were evacuated. Parcels were empty but could have been bombs. (Thieberger p.6).


A former welder, who later became a local councillor in the Safety Liaison Committee of Hinkley Point Nuclear Power station in Somerset, England, alleged that some of the pipe repairs were not properly made on the instruction of his superiors trying to cave work. He also claimed that X-Rays of good welds were used to cover the deception. The events happened in 1971 and are under "very thorough and urgent investigation" by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) after instruction from the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NIII). ("The Guardian" 25/2/87, WISE NC 269 27/2/87 p.10)

1971, December - WINDSCALE, U.K.

Radioactive wastes released into the sea - equivalent to 200,000 curies, 16 times the predicted levels. (Nucleus, 26th July, 1977)

1971 - WINDSCALE, U.K.

Malcolm Patterson (36) died of leukemia after working for 13 years at the plant and was exported to radiation dangers from plutonium. The British nuclear power company, British Nuclear Fuels, has admitted liability and agreed to pay $120,000 damages to his widow. The company told the Court that although it admitted liability the case should not be seen as a precedent. ("The West Australian" - 16th November, 1979)

1970, 18th October - WYLFA, U.K.

The plant was stopped after a power excursion accident, potentially more dangerous than a loss of coolant (LOCA). ("Noun allons tous Craver", J. Pignero - 1st April, 1974; "Les Amis de la Terre")

1970 - WINDSCALE, U.K.

Uncontrolled radiation release follows failure to observe safety procedures. Negligence blamed as plutonium accumulated in vessel. (Wakestein - "The Myth of Nuclear Safety" -The Ecologist - July, 1977)

1970 - WINDSCALE. U.K.

Criticality accident. Uncontrolled release of radiation caused by neglect of an accumulation of plutonium in a vessel. Engineers did not know there was any plutonium residue in the vessel as the reactor did not feature the necessary neutron monitoring devices. (Sources: C. Wakstein, P.212)






Cracks occurred in the main cooling conduits of all above reactors. (Contingency Plan)

1969, July - WINDSCALE, U.K.

Leak of plutonium at Windscale reprocessing plant. Beaches contaminated. Not made public until 1974. (Nucleus - 25th July, 1979)

1969 - IRISH SEA

Leak of plutonium. Unknown origin (C. Wakstein)

1967, January - WINDSCALE, U.K.

Leak of radioactive waste at Windscale after tank overflowed and contaminated beach. (Wakstein, May 1977; Nucleus - 25th July 1979, p.11)

1964, February - WINDSCALE, U.K.

Leak of radioactive waste. (Charles Wakstein "The Myth of Nuclear Safety" The Ecologist, July 1977).


Turbine failure resulted from inability to locate piece of steel shot which should have been visible to the naked eye in the steam lines. (Charles Wakstein, "The Myth of Nuclear Safety," The Ecologist, 7/1977).

1957, October - WINDSCALE No 1, U.K.

Fire caused by human error and defective procedures resulted in eleven tons of uranium being ablaze, relossing a vast cloud of radio-isotopes from the melted fuel. Milk from an area of more than 500 square kilometers (approx. 2 million litres) was poured into the rivers and sea as unsafe for human consumption. Farmers were compensated by the Government, but how many people living near Windscale were affected is not known. Nor is it known how much radioactivity descended over Westmoreland and Cumberland. Local inhabitants any there is a high incidence of cancer deaths in the area, but the Government did not carry out any medical or statistical checks. Both Windscale reactors have since been filled with concrete and entombed. The radioactive cloud reached up to Denmark. In London, 500 km from Windscale the radioactivity reached 20 times the normal level. Report of enquiries into safety was never published. (Sources s A. Gyorgy p.1198/S. Novick). However a previously classified report released in 1989, revealed that the Mc Millan Government invented large amounts of money to finance a concerted pro-nuclear campaign which included scientists traversing U.K., assuring people that the accident was insignificant. (W. Australian May 1989).


32 people died as a result of a fire at the Windscale Plant in 1957. The toll rose when the National Radiological Protection Board considered extra cases of cancer researched by a scientist who examined the effects of Polonium released in the accident. Polonium was used in atomic bombs at the time of the accident. ("West Australian" 1/4/1983)

SUPPLEMENTARY 1987, December 1987 - U.K.

Official documents about a fire at the Windscale reactor in 1957 were released. The accident was much more serious than was then admitted and it was due to defects in the organization of the British Atomic Energy Authority and in the instrumentation at Windscale. Information on the fire was ordered kept secret by Harold Mc Millan, the Conservative Prime Minister of Great Britain and has been published now under the 30-year Rule which allows formerly confidential government documents to be declassified.

Windscale (later named Sellafield) was producing Plutonium for military use. The fire broke out at one of its atomic piles -primitive reactors in which containers of uranium were irradiated to produce the Plutonium. It raged for 16 hours. The Windscale cloud contaminated large areas of Britain and Ireland, and contained more than 600 times as much radioactive iodine as was released during the Three Mile Island accident. Authorities at the time decided not to evacuate local people even though they were exposed to radiation levels 10 times the allowed LIFETIME dose - within a matter hours. The only one safeguard taken to health was the destruction of two million litres of contaminated milk from farms around Windscale. However, it has now been revealed that milk with contamination up to three times the official danger limit was released for human consumption. ("Swedish News Service", "Financial Times" 2 Jan. 1988, "Observer" (U.K.) 3 Jan 1988, "Daily Telegraph" (U.K.) 2 Jan 1988, "Guardian" (U.K.) 4 Jan 1988, WISE 285.

1950-1977 - WINDSCALE, U.K.

Between 1950 and mid-1977, there were 194 accidents at Windscale, 11 involving fires and explosions, 45 release plutonium (Sources: Nucleus - 25th July, 1979, P.17; "The New Ecologists" March/April, 1978)

To name but a few.

Is it not so that Money would be better spent on natraul alternitive energie progects like seriously under funded Tidal Energy, Biogas energy generators from our Garbage problem, hydro power in suitable channles of the nations Rivers, Solar Power initertives for Warehouse buisnises and reduced residential water heating bills and wind power in sutible isolated locations, when suitable passed without mass objections, Such methods produce at least 60% less these Green house Gasses through out there production and working lifer cycle than Dangourouse and radioactive polluting Nuclear Power station expoitivities.

The environmental impacts of uranium mining are numerous. The problems start as early as mineral exploration and continue well past the closing of a mine. Exploration for uranium can cause problems, such as dispossession of indigenous people, that are eclipsed by concerns if permission to mine is granted. Once a mine is functional, the operations must be monitored closely for environmental integrity, including the disposal of the waste created through the mining process tailings. Tailings can be harmful and hard to monitor or isolate effectively. As an estimated 70% of uranium deposits throughout the world are located on indigenous peoples lands. Workers are also faced with the risk of exposure from radiation from the mining of uranium to the manufacturing of weapons and nuclear power, workers are faced with the risk of exposure to radiation. (^Uranium:Do leave it in the ground! The Ecologist, vol 20, no 5, September/October 1990=facts from)

Sadly the Nuclear Industrie has destoyed many a liverlyhood, ecology, enviroments and lifes. A tailing pond in Jadugoda, Bihar State in India, the tailings pond from a uranium mine dried out and caused radioactive dust to contaminate a whole village, leaving a toll of miscarriagiages, cancers, neral disorders and deformed children. A uranium mine and enrichment plant in Sillimae, across the bay from finland, the USSR has now closed down since 10per cent of some 4000 children suffered hair loss, while 30 per cent are suffering skin disorders, as well as nerve damage, blood and intestinal disorders.

The thought of further exploiting this Un-Renewable element of natures resource is quite sickening.

Especialy in consideration of the stockpiles of the stuff in mans hands already, which transported around the World at great danger to its inhabitants by Air, Sea, Road and Rail, despite trains to and from Sellafeild that have derailed and evan on a couple of occasions, Nuclear Waste Cargo Trains have hit cars at Leval Crossing, such as the Nuclear Train crash on unmanned level crossing on Tuesday 11th June 2002 and In 1984 a car was hit by a nuclear train on the same level crossing at Brookland. On that occasion the train was travelling in the opposite direction and was therefore carrying a full flask of dangourisly Radio-Active spent nuclear fuel, on its treaturouse Journey to the Hazodouse reprocessing at Sellafield.

Neverunless, our Democraticaly voted Goverment, insists that such dangourouse expoitaitions are the best way fowards,..? and that interim storage for highly radioactive waste is, to quote Malcolm Wicks (Minister of State (Energy), Department for Business, Enterprise & Regulatory Reform) that "interim storage remains safe and secure in the meantime".

In our Day and Age, despite Plane Accidents, Road Accident, Rail Accidents and Capsized Ships, that highly Radioactive Materials are toid around road, rail, air and by sea.

If Five thousand Tons of wood are washed up on our shores, from a capsized Cargo ship, at least you can see it, though if a Cargo ship capsized in a storm and spilt 5000 curries of Radiation into the Sea, then no one can See or smell it, as it washes into our favorite beaches, wildlife easturies and holliday resorts on the tide.

Likwise, it is only at night that such Radio-Active continuose operational emisions from the UKs Fleet of ageing Nuclear Power stations, can be seen Glowing with the nacked eye!

This phenominam, across the nations favourite familly Beaches and important nature resurves is getting worse, as our seas become more Radio-Active.

All Nuclear plants discharge the alpha-emitting, actinides, namely - the plutoniums, amercium and curium. Nuclear instalations, are responsable for by far too, the greatest source of of tritium in the enviroment, though tritium, a radiocative type of hydrogen, does occur natrauly, as a result of the cosmic rays of the earths atmosphear. The emissions from just cival Nuclear reactors alone is now thought to be equal to that of natraul sources. It is thought that aproximatly 7.4x104 terabecquerel is released a year in emissions from nuclear facilities in Western industrializsed countrys. One terabequal being equal to 10 becquerels. Evan larger quantities of tritium have been released from the treteroise and diabolical and dangorase manufacturing and testing of nuclear weapons.

Tritium discharges from nuclear facilities genraly occur in two ways; Tritium gas (HT), and tritilated water (HTO). Tritilated gas (HT), in it elemental form is both invisible and oderles and pervasive. (HT) is able to radiate through most materials, including ruber and most grades of steel.

Sadly, still larger Large quantities of tritium have been released from the treteroise, diabolical and dangorase manufacturing and testing of nuclear weapons. Tritium is a beta-emitting nuclide.

In the UK, tritium emisissions to the atmospheare are from the Chaplecross plant in Drumfriesshire, scotland, which makes tritium for nuclear weapons. Chaplecross nuclear Power Station in Dumfriesshire, Scotland, emits more than three times as much tritium into the atmospheare as any other UK plant. It produces tritium for nuclear weapons. The British Goverment, were keeping quite until recently about the The old Royal Ordnance Factory, between Puriton and Woolavington, just outside Bridgwater that had been realising tritium from its processing of uranium in making wepons.

Tritium discharges from nuclear facilities genraly occur in two ways; Tritium gas (HT), and tritilated water (HTO). Tritilated gas (HT), in it elemental form is both invisible and oderles and pervasive. (HT) is able to radiate through most materials, including ruber and most grades of steel.

Tritilated water (HTO), is more hazardouse than (HT) because it is chemicaly identical to water, it difuses rapidly through the hydrospheare and biospheare. Tritilated gas is converted to tritilated water in dry indoor conditions at a rate of about one percent a hour, although the more humid the conditions, the faster this conversion.

People who live downwind of of Nuclear Power Stations can thus be expected to to be tritilated by rain fall by an above normal leval.

The exposure of tritium to organisams, can lead to considerable damage to the DNA macromolecule. Dew to the very weakness of Tritium, having a decay range of about 0.6 micrometres, which is less than the human chromosome. For example, if Tritium radiaties to a chromosome in cell nuclei, it deposits all it energy within the chromosome, because of its relertiverly small range.

Studys conducted indicate that tritium from tritilated foods, finds its way into the DNA, rather than other nuclei. Other studys indicate that dew to tritiums magnetic resonance, it may be taken up by DNA's water hydration.

Samples of brittish sea water have been taken to analize for alpha radiation. It has been found that plutonium an americium are absorbed and bonded to sedimentorary particules, suspended in the water colum, somtimes a thousndth of a milimetyre of the surface. Heavier particules pressumablie fall eventualy to the bottem of the sea bed, where despite being subject to disturbancies, may remain reliterverly concitrated for some time. Mineral-fluid partition coefficients can be used to calculate bulk eclogite- and lherzolite-fluid partition coefficients as a means to assess both the trace element composition of fluids that maybe a product of dehydration of the oceanic crust and the effect of the subarc mantle on trace element fractionation during fluid fow.

Unfourtunatly dew to the Nuclear industrie, Casium enterd the marine enviroment fromwepons test fallouts, accidents and gasuase and ligqid disharges from nuclear facilities. Casium, has a slight advantage over tritium in that it is easer and cheaper to monitor. Moitoring Authourities and indipedent research has shown how caesium reconcentrates in the marine food chain and in estuarie and marine sediments.

Caesium reconcentrates in muscle tissue and the reproductive organs. Mamalian studies show how caesium is transferd from mother to baby, who in prior to weaning, show higher build up of caesium, despite shorter exposure time.

caesium, which has been found inland in south wales and even further inland in Cumbria, may be the result of Microlayering, in which the thousandth of a millimitre of sea surface becomes enriched with a fine sedimentorary particules. Microlayerin results in aerosoling which aloows for the transfer of radioactive materials from sea to air by the nataraul prosesies like evaporation and wave breaking. The enrichment factours of seawater to air, aerosoling, are thought to be enormase! With the maximum factor of such a recorded enrichment of aerosoles being of 10km, off the pipeline of sellafield. The breaking of waves along the coasts has been obserbed to produce aerosoles of 812 americium.

In our Day and Age, despite Plane Accidents, Road Accident, Rail Accidents and Capsized Ships, that highly Radioactive Materials are toid around road, rail, air and by sea.

If Five thousand Tons of wood are washed up on our shores, from a capsized Cargo ship, at least you can see it, though if a Cargo ship capsized in a storm and spilt 5000 curries of Radiation into the Sea, then no one can See or smell it, as it washes into our favorite beaches, wildlife easturies and holliday resorts on the tide.

Likwise, it is only at night that such Radio-Active continuose operational emisions from the UKs Fleet of ageing Nuclear Power stations, can be seen Glowing with the nacked eye!

In consideration of the stockpiles of the stuff in mans hands already, which transported around the World at great danger to its inhabitants by Air, Sea, Road and Rail, despite trains to and from Sellafeild that have derailed and evan on a couple of occasions, Nuclear Waste Cargo Trains have hit cars at Leval Crossing, such as the Nuclear Train crash on unmanned level crossing on Tuesday 11th June 2002 and In 1984 a car was hit by a nuclear train on the same level crossing at Brookland. On that occasion the train was travelling in the opposite direction and was therefore carrying a full flask of dangourisly Radio-Active spent nuclear fuel, on its treaturouse Journey to the Hazodouse reprocessing at Sellafield.

Neverunless, our Democraticaly voted Goverment, insists that such dangourouse expoitaitions are the best way fowards,..? and that interim storage for highly radioactive waste is, to quote Malcolm Wicks (Minister of State (Energy), Department for Business, Enterprise & Regulatory Reform) that "interim storage remains safe and secure in the meantime".