Air-Raid Precautions.

Oral Answers to Questions — Unemployment. – in the House of Commons on 3rd November 1938.

Alert me about debates like this

Photo of Captain James Duncan Captain James Duncan , Kensington North

asked the Secretary of State for the Home Department whether he can make a statement on the progress of air-raid precautions schemes in London for the last three months?

Photo of Mr Geoffrey Lloyd Mr Geoffrey Lloyd , Birmingham, Ladywood

I suggest that my hon. Friend should await the statement to be made during the Debate.

Photo of Captain James Duncan Captain James Duncan , Kensington North

asked the Home Secretary whether the surveys of basements and cellar accommodation for shelter purposes have been completed; and what are the conclusions arrived at?

Photo of Mr Geoffrey Lloyd Mr Geoffrey Lloyd , Birmingham, Ladywood

Progress has been made with the survey in some areas and during the recent emergency shelter accommodation in basements was prepared for considerable numbers. But the matter must be handled more systematically, and I would ask the hon. Member to await the statements that will be made in the course of the Debate.

Photo of Sir Mervyn Manningham-Buller Sir Mervyn Manningham-Buller , Northampton

May I ask whether a recent committee did not report very adversely on the use of basements and cellars as air-raid shelters?

Photo of Mr Malcolm Macmillan Mr Malcolm Macmillan , Na h-Eileanan an Iar

Can the hon. Member inform us what alternative accommodation has been provided for the working-class families removed from these cellars and basements in which they have been compelled to live owing to the failure of the Government's housing policy?

Photo of Mr Emanuel Shinwell Mr Emanuel Shinwell , Seaham

The hon. Member says that this matter is now being handled systematically. What has he been doing all the time?

Photo of Captain James Duncan Captain James Duncan , Kensington North

asked the Home Secretary how many gas masks have been distributed in London to storage depots, and how many boroughs in London have these depots?

Photo of Mr Geoffrey Lloyd Mr Geoffrey Lloyd , Birmingham, Ladywood

Approximately 4,000,000 civilian respirators have been issued to the Metropolitan Boroughs and the City of London. The respirators have been distributed to the public and not kept in local storage depots.

Photo of Captain James Duncan Captain James Duncan , Kensington North

Now that the emergency is over, and in view of the difficulty in many cases of people being able to keep their respirators in good condition, will local authorities have complete discretion to store these respirators if they wish to do so?

Photo of Mr Cecil Poole Mr Cecil Poole , Lichfield

Is the hon. Member aware that there are areas adjacent to Birmingham in which the people have not yet been measured for their respirators?

Miss Ward:

asked the Home Secretary whether in collecting material from local authorities on the lessons of the recent crisis arising out of air-raid precautions, he will also collect material from responsible individuals who are in an independent position to offer criticism and praise?

Photo of Mr Geoffrey Lloyd Mr Geoffrey Lloyd , Birmingham, Ladywood

I can assure my hon. Friend that material from which lessons of the recent crisis can be drawn is being collected from all sources. If she is in a position to give me any more material, my right hon. Friend will be glad to receive it and to consider it carefully.

Miss Ward:

Is it the policy of the Home Office to invite specially selected people in areas to offer their observations on the working of air-raid precautions?

Photo of Mr Geoffrey Lloyd Mr Geoffrey Lloyd , Birmingham, Ladywood

Normally we expect to get information from local authorities.

Miss Ward:

Will the hon. Member make a point of asking for information from special people in the area? I think it is most important.

Photo of Major-General Sir Alfred Knox Major-General Sir Alfred Knox , Wycombe

asked the Home Secretary to what firms the contract was given for the supply of gas masks, and in what quantities?

Photo of Mr Geoffrey Lloyd Mr Geoffrey Lloyd , Birmingham, Ladywood

Contracts for the manufacture of 45,000,000 civilian respirators have been made. The respirators have not been ordered as complete units, separate contracts having been placed for the facepieces, rubber bands, inlet valves, components of the metal container and the charcoal. The metal containers have been assembled at factories under the supervision of the Home Office. I will send my hon. and gallant Friend a list of the names of the firms and the components supplied by them.

Photo of Mr Valentine McEntee Mr Valentine McEntee , Walthamstow West

Will the hon. Member be good enough to publish the list?

Photo of Mr Geoffrey Lloyd Mr Geoffrey Lloyd , Birmingham, Ladywood

I will consider publishing the list.

Photo of Captain Bertie Kirby Captain Bertie Kirby , Liverpool Everton

asked the Home Secretary to what extent the supply of gas masks for the public of Liverpool was, during the recent crisis, found to be inadequate by reason of miscalculation as to the proportion of masks in the various sizes; and what steps have yet been taken to remedy the situation in this regard?

Photo of Mr Geoffrey Lloyd Mr Geoffrey Lloyd , Birmingham, Ladywood

Liverpool has reported that as a result of a fitting census which was taken in that city during the week ending the 30th September, there was a surplus of 127,320 large size respirators, 37,321 medium and a deficiency of 84,093 small in the numbers supplied by the Home Office, but that these figures were not final. The deficiency of small respirators will be satisfied when further deliveries from contractors are received. There have been discrepancies in the total numbers reputed to be required by the authority: these were due to the fact that Liverpool had not supplied the particulars of the sizes they required before delivery was made to them, and in these circumstances, the proportions of each size supplied had to be calculated by the Home Office taking as a basis the figures obtained from a fitting census conducted by two local authorities, and information ascertained in the office after fitting certain selected personnel.

Photo of Captain Bertie Kirby Captain Bertie Kirby , Liverpool Everton

While thanking the hon. Member for his informative reply may I ask when we may expect delivery of these smaller-size masks?

Photo of Mr Geoffrey Lloyd Mr Geoffrey Lloyd , Birmingham, Ladywood

Very soon. They are now being turned out at the rate of about 400,000 per week.

Photo of Mr Frederick Macquisten Mr Frederick Macquisten , Argyll

Have Liverpool people got special heads and faces that they require special gas masks?

Photo of Mr Frederick Watkins Mr Frederick Watkins , Hackney Central

asked the Home Secreary whether his attention has been drawn to foreign methods of defence against aerial gas bombing, which advocate opening doors and windows, as against the Government's recommendations for gas-proofing rooms; and whether he proposes to make any alteration in the instructions recently issued on this matter?

Photo of Mr Geoffrey Lloyd Mr Geoffrey Lloyd , Birmingham, Ladywood

The policy, which it is understood has been adopted in one foreign country, of allowing windows to remain open during an air raid, is a precaution against the effects of blast from high explosive bombs and has no reference to gas bombing. The instructions issued by this country about methods of protection against gas remain unaltered. The second part of the question does not, therefore, arise.

Photo of Mr Frederick Watkins Mr Frederick Watkins , Hackney Central

Is there not in this country and abroad a very considerable consensus of expert opinion in opposition to the Home Office policy; and that a gas attack would be preceded by a high explosive attack and in consequence windows would be broken and cracks appear in buildings? Is not the foreign policy, and the policy which I understand has been adopted in Berlin, safer for our population?

Photo of Mr Geoffrey Lloyd Mr Geoffrey Lloyd , Birmingham, Ladywood

I do not think it is possible to make a comparison quite as quickly as the hon. Member is disposed to do. In this case much depends on the fact that windows in this country are of the casement type and not sash type.

Photo of Mr George Strauss Mr George Strauss , Lambeth North

Have any experiments been made as to whether the effect of blasts is diminished by keeping windows open?

Photo of Mr Geoffrey Lloyd Mr Geoffrey Lloyd , Birmingham, Ladywood

It is a fact that windows are less likely to be broken if they are casement windows if they are left open.

Photo of Mr William Gallacher Mr William Gallacher , Fife Western

Is the hon. Member aware that in Scotland a large proportion of the houses will not keep out rain, never mind gas?

Photo of Mr Frederick Watkins Mr Frederick Watkins , Hackney Central

Will consideration be given by the Home Office to the point raised in my question?

Photo of Mr Geoffrey Lloyd Mr Geoffrey Lloyd , Birmingham, Ladywood

The technical branch of the Home Office is always investigating these matters.

Photo of Sir Gifford Fox Sir Gifford Fox , Henley

asked the Home Secretary what would be the approximate cost of providing permanent camps for the total number of people whom it might be desirable to evacuate from crowded and industrial areas in the event of war; and whether he proposes to carry out any experiment by the erection of such a camp?

Photo of Mr Geoffrey Lloyd Mr Geoffrey Lloyd , Birmingham, Ladywood

As was pointed out in the report of the committee over which my right hon. Friend presided, it is doubtful whether extensive use could be made of camps for very large numbers, but as was stated in reply to a question on Tuesday the arrangements necessary in a long-term policy of evacuation are at present the subject of study and investigation.

Photo of Sir Gifford Fox Sir Gifford Fox , Henley

Will the hon. Member have the figures worked out as to what would be the cost of providing camps per 10,000? Will he give the information during the course of the Debate this afternoon?

Photo of Mr Gordon Hall Caine Mr Gordon Hall Caine , Dorset Eastern

asked the Home Secretary whether he is aware that during the recent crisis in several cases the price of sandbags supplied for air-raid precautions work was raised to more than six times the normal price; and whether he will take steps to ascertain the names of those who were responsible for such profiteering with a view to preventing it on any similar occasion in the future?

Photo of Mr Harry Day Mr Harry Day , Southwark Central

asked the Home Secretary whether his attention has been called to the sudden increase in the cost of sandbags and other materials required for air-raid precautions during the recent crisis; and will he consider the appointment of a committee to investigate the cause of same, and for the further purpose of introducing legislation that will protect the public from having to pay similar extortionate prices for materials that may be required in any future emergency?

Photo of Mr George Strauss Mr George Strauss , Lambeth North

asked the Home Secretary what was the extent of the rise which took place in the price of sandbags bought for air-raid protection during the crisis week in September; and whether steps are going to be taken to prevent a similar occurrence in the future?

Photo of Mr Dingle Foot Mr Dingle Foot , Dundee

asked the Home Secretary whether his attention has been called to the difficulty experienced by local authorities in obtaining an adequate supply of sandbags for air-raid precautions during the recent crisis and to the complaints of excessive prices for such sandbags; and what steps it is proposed to take to avoid difficulties of this kind in future?

Photo of Mr Geoffrey Lloyd Mr Geoffrey Lloyd , Birmingham, Ladywood

Evidence that my right hon. Friend has been able to obtain so far does not support the view that the price of sandbags prepared for air-raid precautions purposes was generally raised. Investigations are still proceeding and if any proved case of profiteering on such sandbags is revealed, appropriate action will be taken. It is to be appreciated that there is little normal trade in this country in sandbags other than for Government requirements. These, including requirements of local authorities for essential A.R.P. purposes, are catered for by standing contracts which secure deliveries at the rate of 2,000,000 sandbags a week, a rate of delivery which was increased during the crisis at unchanged prices. In these conditions, the abnormal demand by miscellaneous buyers during the crisis led to jute bags of all qualities and sizes becoming pressed into service. It is naturally more difficult to form a clear view how far the prices of other jute bags which were pressed into service may have increased. The progressive accumulation of reserve stocks which are part of the existing programme will ease the position but my right hon. Friend is considering the position further in conjunction with my right hon. Friend the Prseident of the Board of Trade.

Photo of Mr Dingle Foot Mr Dingle Foot , Dundee

Is it not a fact that the manufacturers have at all times been ready to supply sandbags at a reasonable price, approved by the Home Office, and would not all these difficulties as to a shortage of sandbags have been avoided if the Home Office had purchased and distributed a sufficient number to the local authorities in time?

Photo of Mr Harry Day Mr Harry Day , Southwark Central

Will the Minister say what will be the appropriate action which he will take in future?

Photo of Mr Geoffrey Lloyd Mr Geoffrey Lloyd , Birmingham, Ladywood

For example, in the case of firms which might be Government contractors, their position would have to be considered.

Photo of Mr Gordon Hall Caine Mr Gordon Hall Caine , Dorset Eastern

Has my right hon. Friend made inquiries of the public authorities which have made complaints on this subject, and if not, will he do so?

Photo of Mr Geoffrey Lloyd Mr Geoffrey Lloyd , Birmingham, Ladywood

Yes, Sir. This answer naturally is based on a very large amount of information from the local authorities.

Photo of Mr George Strauss Mr George Strauss , Lambeth North

Is the hon. Gentleman aware that in the West Riding, the price of sandbags went up from 1½d to 10d., according to the official report of the clerk of the council; that there were similar rises in the prices of other materials, such as pickaxes and timber, for air-raid precautions; and is it not obviously necessary for some drastic steps to be taken to prevent profiteering in all materials connected with air-raid precautions?

Photo of Mr Geoffrey Lloyd Mr Geoffrey Lloyd , Birmingham, Ladywood

I have said that this matter was to be taken up with my right hon. Friend the President of the Board of Trade; but I would like to point out to the hon. Member that he has failed to observe the significance of the distinction drawn in my reply between sandbags prepared for air-raid precautions purposes, which are coming forward at the rate of 2,000,000 a week, and more during the crisis, at unchanged prices, and the bags of various kinds, not necessarily sandbags normally prepared in any way for air-raid precautions purposes, but for miscellaneous commercial purposes, which were pressed into service suddenly, although not normally prepared for that purpose at all, and in the case of which it would be more difficult to decide how much the increase was.

Photo of Mr George Griffiths Mr George Griffiths , Hemsworth

Is it not a fact that Sir Charles McGrath sent a report to the Home Secretary in which he stated definitely that sandbags had risen from 1½d. to 10½d. on the same day, and they were sandbags which could not be got from the Home Office?

Photo of Mr Dingle Foot Mr Dingle Foot , Dundee

Does it not follow from the last reply that the numbers of sandbags purchased and distributed by the Home Office were entirely inadequate to meet the emergency?

Photo of Mr Geoffrey Lloyd Mr Geoffrey Lloyd , Birmingham, Ladywood

We are engaged in accumulating a large stock of sandbags. At the time of the emergency there were 80,000,000, but on the programme there are 275,000,000.

Photo of Mr George Griffiths Mr George Griffiths , Hemsworth

Has the hon. Gentleman got that report?

Photo of Mr Valentine McEntee Mr Valentine McEntee , Walthamstow West

asked the Home Secretary whether he is aware that the Midland Bank, Limited, has issued instructions to its employÉs not to volunteer for air-raid precautions work; and whether he proposes taking any steps to enable those employÉs who so desire to offer service for this work?

Photo of Mr Geoffrey Lloyd Mr Geoffrey Lloyd , Birmingham, Ladywood

I have seen a copy of the circular referred to in which it is stated that there is no objection to any member of the staff offering his services for A.R.P. or similar work on condition that it does not interfere with his attendance and duties at the Bank. The circular further states that owing to the encouragement the Bank is giving to its staff to join the Territorials and other branches of the Defence Forces the staff would, in an emergency, be so seriously depleted that they cannot spare further members for A.R.P. duties during working hours.

Photo of Mr Valentine McEntee Mr Valentine McEntee , Walthamstow West

I admit that the question is somewhat misleading, but does not the circular actually say that if they volunteer they must not volunteer for this or any other similar service if it interferes with their business duties? Does it not go on to say that these business hours will be extended, and does it not further say that those who have already volunteered must withdraw the offer they have made if it in any way interferes with their business hours, and does he not really think that that state of affairs ought to he changed?

Photo of Mr Geoffrey Lloyd Mr Geoffrey Lloyd , Birmingham, Ladywood

I think that is a matter which would probably be taken up further with the Bank in any more general view of air-raid precautions.

Photo of Mr Frederick Macquisten Mr Frederick Macquisten , Argyll

Do not banks close at 3 o'clock?

Photo of Mr Robert Morrison Mr Robert Morrison , Tottenham North

asked the Home Secretary whether he will indicate, for the convenience of local authorities and the public, the policy of his Department with regard to trenches dug and partly dug in parks and open spaces during the recent crisis?

Photo of Mr Geoffrey Lloyd Mr Geoffrey Lloyd , Birmingham, Ladywood

Perhaps the hon. Member would await the statement to be made during to-day's Debate.

Photo of Mr Oliver Simmonds Mr Oliver Simmonds , Birmingham Duddeston

asked the Home Secretary whether he can give an approximate estimate of the cost, during the recent crisis, of air-raid precautionary measures both to local authorities and to the Exchequer, severally?

Photo of Mr Geoffrey Lloyd Mr Geoffrey Lloyd , Birmingham, Ladywood

Returns from all local authorities have not yet been rendered but on the basis of the information available it is estimated that the gross expenditure of local authorities was of the order of £3,300,000. Grant is payable in accordance with the terms of the Act under which the rate of grant varies, but on the average it may be taken that two-thirds of the approved expenditure would be met by grant. In addition further expenditure was incurred by the Exchequer in respect of supplies and equipment to be furnished centrally, but it is not practicable to isolate emergency expenditure from expenditure incurred under the normal programme.

Photo of Mr Oliver Simmonds Mr Oliver Simmonds , Birmingham Duddeston

Would my hon. Friend have investigation made into the proportion of these amounts which has been permanently lost owing to the temporary expedients employed, so that, in future, a longer range policy may be considered?

Photo of Colonel Harry Nathan Colonel Harry Nathan , Wandsworth Central

Is the hon. Gentleman able to say how much expenditure is attributable to sums expended quite outside the local authority, for instance in respect of hospital accommodation, and what is the responsibility falling upon the Exchequer in regard to provision for casualties by hospitals not under local authorities?

Photo of Mr Geoffrey Lloyd Mr Geoffrey Lloyd , Birmingham, Ladywood

I could not say without notice.

Photo of Mr Hugh Dalton Mr Hugh Dalton , Bishop Auckland

May I ask whether the Government, in view of all that has occurred, will not make a clean sweep of this and pay the whole thing out of the National Exchequer, and not put it on the rates at all?

Photo of Mr Geoffrey Lloyd Mr Geoffrey Lloyd , Birmingham, Ladywood

I am not in a position to make a statement on that now.

Photo of Mr James Ede Mr James Ede , South Shields

asked the Home Secretary how many children the Croydon Borough Council were authorised to evacuate in the event of a national emergency; what transport was proposed to be placed at their disposal; and what grant was promised to the council?

Photo of Mr Geoffrey Lloyd Mr Geoffrey Lloyd , Birmingham, Ladywood

During the recent crisis, arrangements were made in considerable detail for the removal of school children from the inner areas of Greater London, but the question whether it was practicable to extend such arrangements to outer areas, such as Croydon, had not been finally determined when the crisis ended. The scope of evacuation plans is now under examination with the object of preparing schemes of a more permanent character.

Photo of Mr James Ede Mr James Ede , South Shields

Are we to understand that any expenditure incurred by the Croydon Borough Council in preparing for the evacuation of the children there, will not rank for grant?

Photo of Mr Geoffrey Lloyd Mr Geoffrey Lloyd , Birmingham, Ladywood

I could not make any statement on that now.

Photo of Sir Percy Harris Sir Percy Harris , Bethnal Green South West

Does the hon. Gentleman realise that many of these outer boroughs, especially East Ham and other places in East London, were in far more danger and were more liable to air attack even than the inner zone of the County of London; and why did the Government ignore these outer areas?

Photo of Mr Geoffrey Lloyd Mr Geoffrey Lloyd , Birmingham, Ladywood

The scheme was in process of being extended. It had already been extended to East Ham and Walthamstow, and the question of further areas was being considered.

Photo of Mr Dingle Foot Mr Dingle Foot , Dundee

asked the Home Secretary the number of sandbags that have been purchased by his Department and distributed to local authorities?

Photo of Mr Geoffrey Lloyd Mr Geoffrey Lloyd , Birmingham, Ladywood

The number of sandbags purchased to date is 88,000,000, of which some were required by the Navy, Army and Air Force. The number distributed to local authorities is 66,000,000. Eight millions are now in stock.

Photo of Miss Ellen Wilkinson Miss Ellen Wilkinson , Jarrow

Will the extra profits on these sandbags be available for some kind of National Defence contribution?

Photo of Mr Geoffrey Lloyd Mr Geoffrey Lloyd , Birmingham, Ladywood

I explained earlier that there were no extra profits. There was an increased output.

Photo of Mr Samuel Silverman Mr Samuel Silverman , Nelson and Colne

asked the Home Secretary whether in view of the fact that a memorandum of his Department advises local authorities to purchase sirens for air-raid precaution purposes exclusively from a particular firm whose name, address, and prices are therein quoted, his Department have withheld, or threatened to withhold, financial assistance for any local authority desiring to purchase sirens from firms other than the firm alone recommended by them; and, as other firms producing sirens, not inferior to those recommended by his Department, are being forced out of business, he will reconsider his policy in this respect?

Photo of Mr Geoffrey Lloyd Mr Geoffrey Lloyd , Birmingham, Ladywood

The Home Office circular to which the hon. Member refers names all the instruments which, after long and extensive trials, the Department was able to recommend as suitable for air raid warning purposes in urban areas. Where a local authority inquires regarding the purchase of other instruments, it must be told either, in the case of instruments included in the trials, that they have not proved so efficient as the recommended instruments, or, in the case of instruments not tried, that their relative efficiency is not known; but in no case has approval for purposes of grant been withheld in the case of instruments purchased during the recent emergency. In the absence of trial, my right hon. Friend is not able to accept any untried instrument as being as good as the recommended instruments.

Photo of Mr Samuel Silverman Mr Samuel Silverman , Nelson and Colne

Is the hon. Gentleman aware that firms other than the firm now recommended were invited to submit a type quite different from that which is recommended now, and that they are being penalised because the type which they were asked to submit is not in accordance with what his Department required? Does he further realise that these firms are capable of producing, and have in fact been producing, comparable instruments to the one which was recommended, while the policy of the Department has been to grant a monopoly of them to Leicester which is comparatively prosperous, and to deprive Lancashire, which needs the work very badly, of this manufacture?

Photo of Mr Geoffrey Lloyd Mr Geoffrey Lloyd , Birmingham, Ladywood

There is no question of setting up a monopoly, but there has been some misunderstanding in this case. The firm which, I think, the hon. Gentleman has in mind did not inform the Department that they had a siren of the particular type which afterwards was recommended. As a result, a siren of larger power was tested and proved less efficient than the siren of smaller power. The matter is in process of being straightened out now that we know that there is such an instrument.

Photo of Miss Ellen Wilkinson Miss Ellen Wilkinson , Jarrow

Was there an adequate supply?

Photo of Miss Ellen Wilkinson Miss Ellen Wilkinson , Jarrow

On a point of Order. On a matter of such importance as this, surely I am entitled to ask that question?

Photo of Lieut-General Edward Fitzroy Lieut-General Edward Fitzroy , Daventry

I must point out to the hon. Lady that there are 137 Questions on the Paper and that there must be some limit put to the number of supplementaries on each question.

Photo of Mr Samuel Silverman Mr Samuel Silverman , Nelson and Colne

In view of the unsatisfactory nature of the reply, I beg to give notice that I will take an early opportunity of raising this matter on the Adjournment.

Photo of Mr William Kelly Mr William Kelly , Rochdale

asked the Home Secretary whether he will place before the House a copy of the letter of instruction given to municipal officers during September in the matter of protection from war?

Photo of Mr Samuel Hoare Mr Samuel Hoare , Chelsea

In time of war it would be necessary for the Government to take certain action which falls outside the sphere of ordinary local government. The instructions which the hon. Member no doubt has in mind were confidential instructions on such matters. Action was not in fact taken on them, and they have been withdrawn.

Photo of Mr William Kelly Mr William Kelly , Rochdale

May we now have those instructions laid, so that Members of the House may know what instructions were given over the heads of the muncipal authorities in this country?

Photo of Mr Samuel Hoare Mr Samuel Hoare , Chelsea

No. We could not publish confidential instructions, but I propose to deal with this question in the course of the Debate.